Health and Disease

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AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY

  • more hierarchical
  • land=wealth
  • increased division - labour
  • less communal
  • increasing density
  • higher food production
  • store food + keep domesticated animals
  • higher birth rate

Threats to Health

 

  • pathogens - water 
  • human waste - enteric pathogens
  • pathogens - food
  • plants - poisonous
  • processing - ***** contamination
  • feacl oral route:
    • water - inadequately treated
    • food - handled feces present (personal hygiene)
    • poor sewage treatment + vectors (houseflies)
    • poor/absent cleaning
    • sexual practices
  • Giardiasis, Rotavirus, Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery), Typhoid fever, Enteroviruses, Cholera, Clostridium difficile, Cryptosporidiosis, Ascariasis.
  • animals - transmission from=zoonosis
    • cattle: measles, smallpox, TB
    • pigs + ducks: influenza
    • birds: falciparum malaria
    • dogs + rats: leptospirosis
    • cats: toxoplasmosis, cat scratch fever
  • wars - controlling food supplies
  • famines - adverse weather, distibution chains easily disrupted
  • slavery
    • low calorie intake
    • poor diet (starch+fat)
    • insalubrious conditions
    • low life expectancy
    • poverty
    • dehydration+diarrhoea
  • excess alcohol consumption
  • Black Death: 1348 - 1350
    • yersinia estis bacterium=bubonic plague
    • fleas + rats
    • killed 30-60% europe's population
  • Irish Famine/Potato Famine: 1845 - 1852
    • 1 million died
    • population reduced 20-25%
    • potato blight=phytophthora infestans (oomycete)
  • Zoonosis
    • infectious disease, animals - humans
    • transmitted - infected saliva. rabies (acute encephalitis)
    • neurotropic virus
    • brain inflammation
  • Lyme Disease/lyme borreliosis
    • genus Borrelia - bacteria
    • ticks
  • Toxoplasmosis
    • protozoan toxoplasma gondii
    • encephalitis + necrotizing retinochoroiditis
  • Tuberculosis
    • mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Syphilis
    • spirochete bacterium treponema pallidum
  • Tetanus
    • obligate anaerobic bacterium clostridium tetani
    • tetano spasmin=neurotoxin (opisthotonus)
  • Cholera epidemic
    • london/paris 1832
    • 100,000+ casualties
  • The Americas: 1500-1900
    • 30 million dead
    • smallpox, measles, typhoid

Health benefits

  • social development - improved shelter
  • medicine
  • reduced impact, adverse weather - caloric intake
  • improved social supports 
  • kinship networks
  • sharing of knowledge
  • back up system - economic support
  • Penicillium - sir alexander fleming (1881-1955)
  • Salicilates - hippocrates (460 BC)
  • First refrigerator - John Gorrie (1803-1855)

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • improvements - health
  • longevity (long life)
  • full height - adulthood
  • increases - population
  • decline - mortality
  • determinants, improved health - Mckeown thesis
  • improvements - public health measures
  • advances - medicine
  • improved personal hygiene
  • improved living standards
  • Mckeown+Brown's thesis
    • mortality rates after 1840
    • improvements - reductions,

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