Epidemiology

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Epidemiology today is largely directed at...?
Chronic disease
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What are the determinants of disease?
Host, Agent and environment
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A factor that can influence the exposure to disease causing agents ?
Immunocompromised or nutritionally deficient
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What is an endemic?
The constant low level presence of a disease or infection defined to a geographic location
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What is attack rate ?
the cumulative incidence of infection in a population observed over a period of time during an epidemic
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What is incidence?
No. of new events occurring in a defined population during a specified period of time
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What is prevelence?
proportion of people who have a specific condition at any specified time - the number of new and exsisting cases / the total population
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What is aetiology?
postulated cause of disease specifically those that utilise pathogenic medium
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What is latency/latent period?
the delay between exposure and disease , the period of initiation of infection to its detection
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The incubation period is the....
time between first contact with an infectious agent and the appearance of the first disease symptom
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What is morbidity?
the relative incidence of a disease
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What is the odds ratio formula?
odds that an exposed person develops the disease / odds that a non-exposed person develops the disease
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What are the first 3 steps in an outbreak investigation?
preliminary epidemiologic investigation -> environmental investigation -> Specimen collection & lab analysis
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What are the final 3 steps in an outbreak investigation?
Implementation of control measures -> case control study -> conclusion and dissemination of findings
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What is an experimental study?
a study in which conditions are in direct control of the investigator
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A cohort study examines....
any designated group individuals who are followed or traced over time
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