Haloalkanes Continued

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Nucleophilic Substitution

Halogen atoms are electronegative. Carbon-halogen bonds in haloalkanes are polar. The electrons in the C-X bond are attracted towards the halogen atom, which gains a slight negative charge (     ), leaving the carbon atom electron deficient, with a slight positive charge (    ).


The (   ) carbon can then be attacked by nucleophiles, i.e negative ions.



The rate of such reactions is


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