Graphics

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Materials and Components

  • Types of paper and board:
  • cartridge paper
  • layout paper

bleed proof paper

    • tracing paper
    • card
    • corrugated board
    • mount board
    • duplex
    • solid white board
    • grey board
  • Many paper based boards are laminated to other materials for specific purposes, eg:
    • plastic coating for waterproofing
    • aluminium foil coating for insulation or as a bacterial barrier
    • greaseproof paper for baking cups
    • wax coating for waterproofing (takeaway coffee cups)
  • Thermoplastics
    • HIPS - high impact polystyrene is used in toys, jewel CD cases, yogurt pots, as it can be vacuum formed
    • PP - polypropylene is flexible, used for crisp packets, resistance to work fatigue, hygenic
    • PET - polyethylene terephtalate is tough, and used for fizzy drinks bottles
    • PVC - polyvinyl chloride is tough and resists scratches, used for blister packs
    • Expanded polystyrene (Styrofoam) - used for protective packaging, block modelling
    • Acetate - clear but not tough, eg film for cameras
    • Acrylic - stiff and brittle, high gloss and wide colour range, POS stands
    • Bioplastic - biodegradable, used for food packaging
  • Shaping and Forming Plastics
    • Vacuum forming is a process in which simple hollow shapes are created by sucking air from underneath a heated thermoplastic sheet (HIPS) draped over a mould (remember draft angles and rounded edges for the mould!)
    • Injection moulding is a process in which hot liquid plastic is injected by force into a mould
    • Blow moulding is a process for making hollow plastic forms by blowing compressed air into a heated thermoplastic
    • Line bending is a process used to bend straight lines in a heated thermoplastic
    • Jigs and formers are used to accurately locate, bend, or aid in the construction of a product, saving time by making it possible to create identical items
  • Block modelling materials
    • Expanded polystyrene (Styrofoam) is good for making 3D models but a high quality finish is hard to achieve (use a file or abrasive paper)
    • Balsa wood takes longer to shape compared to Styrofoam, but is stronger and can be used as a mould for vacuum forming (use a file or abrasive paper)
    • Plasticine or clay is easy to make 3D models and can easily be reused but does not have a good finish
    • Foam board can be laser cut is good for drawing onto or adding a printed image, but is not recyclable
  • Spiral wound tubes are used in 3D printing
  • Smart / modern materials - smart materials react to their surroundings, modern materials have been invented within the last 50 years
    • Polymorph is a special type of plastic which is hard at room temperature but softens at 60 degrees Celsius.
    • Corn starch polymers are biodegradable and made from crops such as potatoes, corn and maize, and can replace oil based thermoplastics
    • Paperfoam is made from a combination of starch based polymers and paper fibres, and is scratch-resistant and fully biodegradable - used for packaging
    • PMC - precious metal clays - 99.9% metal, 0.1% clay, can be shaped at room temperature
    • Lyocell - biodegradable material made from wood pulp, used for tea bags
    • Thermochromic materials

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