Second Ministry 1880-1885
Trouble continued amongst tenant farmers in Ireland at the start of this ministry. It was clear something needed to be done about this problem. The Land Act had left unresolved the many grievances against the landlords, and the poor harvests and agricultural depression of the late 1870s had made life even harder for those who rented land.
1878, the Land League had been formed. led by Charles Parnell and Michael Davitt gained massive support throughout Ireland. They campaigned for the 3 F's:
- Fixity of Tenure- a guarantee that tenants could not be evicted provided they paid their rents
- Fair Rents- to prevent unfair rent increases
- Free Sale- the right to see their tenancy if they wished.
Gladstone was hampered in his Irish policy by opposition: House of Lords, The Land League and Irish Home Rule MPs in the House of Commons.
Second Land Act 1881 Gladstone not willing to tolerate violence as a result he brought in a Coercion Act which temporarily suspended Habeas Corpus. August 1881, Parliament passed Gladstone's Second Land Act: this guaranteed the 3 F's: fixity of tenure, fair rents and free sale. The Coercion Act was hated and did not stop the disorder in Ireland's community. The Second Land Act was seen as a way forward which could reduce violence being experience in Ireland:
- Fair rents would be fixed by land courts for a period of 15 years. This meant landlords could not increase the rents as and when they wished
- Fixed tenancies gave rights…