From Defeat To Unity - Germany 1945 - 1991. Two Germany's


Unit 1:


Problems that need long term solutions:

  • Re-building/structuring of Autobahn’s, transport routes, train lines, homes, schools, places of worship etc.
  • Economic problems and paying reparations
  • Removing the Nazi ideals from everyday life
  • Getting work placement


Problems that don’t need to be solved in order for Germany to recover:

·         Displaced persons, because this is something that was occurring before the war and will continue to occur after the war.

·         Psychological issues as this does not affect the recovery of Germany as a whole.


What was agreed at Yalta conference with reference to what would happen to Germany?

·         The zone idea was put forward at Yalta

·         They all agree on Demilitarisation and de-nazification (All agree to 4D’s, decentralisation, democratisation – Stalin agrees but it is not specified as to how it will be engaged.)

·         They don’t decide upon reparations


What does each country want?



  • Economic recovery to secure future trading partnership
  • Demilitarisation
  • Denazification viewed as morale crusade.


  • Demilitarisation to prevent another war
  • Establishment of Communism in Germany
  • Denazification to remove anything connected with the Nazi’s


  • Decentralisation politically to prevent Germany gaining political power and attacking France again.
  • Wanted the “break-up” of Germany
  • Demilitarise Germany to prevent another war
  • Economic recovery but only to extract resources as form as reparations.


  • Economic recovery to secure a trading partner
  • Very keen for decentralisation of large industrial


Why did the relationship between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies become more hostile in 1945?

  • Roosevelt dies and Harry Truman becomes president of U.S.A. Roosevelt was tolerant of Communism and had recognised USSR as a country. Roosevelt had rebuilt the relationship between USSR and U.S.A, when he dies and Truman becomes president it completely shifts this. Truman is ANTI-COMMUNIST and is a very strong character! This now puts strain on their relationship.
  • S.U move the Polish German boarder west – causing strain on relationship between USSR and GB. This begins to cause suspicion and makes you question Stalin’s ability to co-operate.
  • Soviet Military Administration (SMAD) set up in Berlin. Western allies begin to question the timing and the fairness of the move? The problem of military personnel in a DE-militarised zone. This is also expansion of USSR after they move Polish-German boarder.


Potsdam Conference 17th July 1945

  • War is already over – April.
  • America is still fighting Japan
  • Churchill starts, but then gets voted out and Clement Attlee is voted in and finishes the conference. New, clueless person comes into the situation and this only strains relationships more. Attlee is a socialist, and has more sympathy towards stalin and also made promises to sort out Britain. “Man of the people” and doesn’t care that much about international affairs. Voted in for wrong reasons in terms of international relations.
  • France did not attend!
  • They all agreed Germany should pay $20 billion in reparations, but they could NOT agree on HOW and WHEN that should be


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