FRANCE IN 1550
Ø Population probably 15-20 million (the most heavily populates country in Europe)
Ø Logically France was the strongest country in Europe in terms of resources, population, food and weapon manufacture
Ø Unified in terms of language and culture. France was essentially a nation state sharing a common culture, language and government, the only other states comparable in 1550 were England (much weaker) and Spain and Portugal but Spain was not very united and Portugal was weak.
Ø The French royal family was arguably the richest in Western Europe. This gave them much more power within their country than either the rulers of Britain or Spain- who had to ask their Parliaments. The French parliament called the states general was rarely called.
Ø The King of France from 1547 was Henry II. He was a tough warrior who was fighting a long war against Spain. In 1559 H signed a peace with Spain called the Cateau-Cambresis. This was to be sealed by the marriage of the Spanish King (Phillip II) to the daughter of Henry II – Elizabeth of Valois. This lead to the death of Henry II in a jousting accident. Henry’s children were young and France found itself weakened by this.
Ø Frances’ other weakness stemmed from the growth of Protestantism – which meant that it is no longer a unified nation
Ø Henry II had been very ruthless on Protestants and burnt hundreds
Differences between Calvinism
Differences between Calvinism and RC
Differences between Lutheranism and RC
· Lutheran “churches” were a little decorated
· Consubstantiation (remains bread but also becomes Body)
· Lutheranism was basically a top down religion, with a hierarchy
· Calvinists believe in pre-destination unlike the RC Calvinists don’t believe in a Pope
· Calvinists didn’t believe in priests and bishops
· Bread is bread
· Calvinists believed in equality of all member of their faith
· Calvinist meeting places were plain and undecorated
· Calvinism was “bottom up” religion
· Catholic Churches were highly ornate and opulent
· Transubstantiation (bread becomes boys of Jesus)
· Top-down hierarchical
· RC did not believe that the bible was the entire work of God as so, were the works of some saints, popes, church council etc
Religion in France in 1540 onwards
Ø Lutheranism much little impact in France, although, it was very popular in Germany and Northern Europe. This was because the Kings of France were not sympathetic
Ø King of France had special rights vis-à-vis the Pope which meant that the Pope could not claim any effective power in France this meant Lutheranism had little appeal.
Ø However, from the 1530s onwards, Calvinism begins to spread in France- appealing especially to the middle class and also minor nobility and in some areas (mainly south) the ordinary people
Ø Henry II began…