Fascism

Origins of Fascism

  • prominant through the interwar period
  • Mussolini and Hitler claimed to have the peoples best interests
  • it was a third way
  • failure of democracy
  • treaty of Versailles
  • wall street crash
  • opposition to the enlightenment period
  • defined by what it opposes

Totalitarianism

"a certain kind of regime in which the state claims to have authority and control over every aspect of life. Politics and ideology of the state reside in the hands of a single leader or ruling elite"

Characteristics:

  • Extreme Collectivism. This means there is no distinction between public and private life. The individual is subservient to a greater need
  • Leader is granted ultimate power and authority- this stands in complete opposition to liberal ideas
  • Monism- belief in one set of values

Giovanni Gentile- "everything for the state, nothing against the state, nothing outside of the state"

  • Fascist Italy(voluntarism) allowed for the existence of the monarchy, catholic church and local political leaders in the south retained their positions (this may contradict the aspect of being a totalitarian state)
  • Nazi Germany inflicted terror and fear as they created the SA, Gestapo and the **; all administrative wings of the Nazi Party that were used to enforce obedience and act as a psychological enforcement on the masses. EG the night of broken glass- everything destroyed by the gestapo and forces, concentration camps and the final solution.

Corporatism

Corporatism was in theory, 'a political system in which the economy was collectively managed by employers, workers and state officials by formal mechanisms at the national level. The gov is a broker in a tripartite system.

Authoritarian Corporatism:

  • believe in the ideas of an 'organic state' and Mussolini saw an ideal society whereby there was natural fusion of business and workers. He made sense because without workers businesses fail and workers without a business to work for fail.
  • Mussolini devised a 3rd way in which the best interests of workers and businesses were achieved through state intervention and management.

The corporate state of Italy;

  • Mussolini created 22 corporations in 1927 that would represent an aspect of industry. He wanted it to create and entise moral further established collective ideals of Fascism whereby all people follow the same general will.
  • mussolini replaced the chamber of deputies to the chamber of fasces whereby national councillors would represent each of the 22 branches- people saw this as a means of modernising italy.

The OND;

  • this was the national recreational club- for an adult leisure group across italy for poor- Mussolini

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