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FASCISM
The defining theme of fascism is the idea of an organically unified national
community, embodied in a belief in `strength through unity'.

The individual is nothing; individual identity must be entirely absorbed into the
community or social group.

The fascist ideal is that of the `new man', a hero,…

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Core Values

1. Irrationality.

Fascists gave been associated with anti-rationalism because of three basic principles that
fascism and anti-rationalism have in common:

Anti-rationalism rejects the ideas of Enlightenment such as reason and progress.

They both stress action and oppose rational thought. Fascists preferred action to
thought and the exertion of…

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2. Mythology
Machiavelli advised rulers that they should only tell the truth to their people if it were
absolutely necessary.

They should maintain their own rule in the interests of the state and security.

If deceiving people would preserve the peace and create order, rulers should ignore
morality and do…

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· Adapting Nietzsche's worship of `will to power', fascists were driven by a desire to achieve
great deed to transform whole societies and to leave behind them evidence of their
masculine virtues.

· Such decisive action could only be realised through the dynamic actions of the states leaders.

· Mussolini…

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Will to action, the virtues of struggle, self-sacrifice and heroism and the subjection of
the individual to the purposes of the state
Point to warfare being the ultimate expression of all of them together!

Nietzsche declared: `The Nation that gives up war and conquest is ripe for democracy and rule…

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5. Leadership

The existence of a single, all-powerful leader is perhaps the best-known feature of fascists
regimes. Fascism is deeply elitist and fiercely patriarchal. Its ideas were founded on the
belief that absolute leadership and elitism are natural and desirable.

Fascists believe that society is composed, broadly of three kinds…

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6. Opposition to democracy

Fascism opposes all traditional forms of democracy. Democracy is simply inappropriate in a
fascist regime. Hitler saw it as a positive evil.

1. There is democracy in the form of rule by the majority.

Fascists saw no grounds for the majority being necessarily right. They see…

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7. Organic society/ collectivism and anti-egalitarian


The concept of the organic society represents a direct alternative to liberal , pluralist,
democracy.

During 19th century, philosophers described the virtues of a society in which the
interests of individuals and the state as a whole could amount to the same thing. This…

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8. Nationalism

All fascists have been radical nationalists. `Radical' describes a kind of nationalism
which is neither liberal nor passive in nature. Nationalism is seen by fascists as a
collective and positive movement. Fascism is obsessed with the idea of uniting
people into a single, organic whole. Fascists therefore worship…

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9. Racialism

Racialism is normally used to denote a particular state of mind rather than a political theory.

Racists are prejudiced against certain racial groups and are likely to see their own race as
superior to others.

Racialism is a quasi-scientific set of theories about race. It often results in…

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With the exception of a few typographical problems, this is a very useful survey of the origins of fascism. Students who are preparing for synoptic discussions in A2 will find this a good starting point and may then go on to attach examples and case studies in order to fulfil the assessment objective of evaluation and analysis, (AO2).

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