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HALOGENOALKANES
It is an alkane with at least one halogen atom in
place of a hydrogen atom.
Naming halogenoalkanes- the prefixes are listed in alphabetical order.

Bonds are PERMANENT-PERMANENT DIPOLE because carbon
and halogen together is a polar molecule. Their boiling points depends
on the size and number of halogen…

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homolytic fission- this can occur when radiation of the right frequency
(visible or UV) is absorbed by the halogenoalkane. This occurs when
Halogenoalkanes reach the stratosphere, where they are exposed to intense
UV radiation. This is how Cl damages ozone layer
heterolytic fission- this is common under laboratory conditions when…

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ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
This involves four stages:-
1. reaction
Things to consider...
Reactants
Solvent
Concentrations
Heat/reflux?
Catalyst?


2. separation
Separating funnel - separates water and aqueous impurities from
product
Anhydrous sodium sulphate - removes final traces of water (can also
use CaSO4 or MgSO4)


3. purification
Final impurities must be
removed…

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Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
Melting point

Volatile liquids (one with low boiling points), these are hard to work with in
reactions. Liquid evaporates before it had a chance to react. You can use reflux
condensers for volatile liquids. The volatile liquid evaporates but then condenses
and drips back into the…

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