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Slide 2

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Primary, secondary and
tertiary
· Primary haloalkanes have one R(chain of C atoms)
group attached to the carbon linked to the halogen
· Secondary haloalkanes have 2 R groups attached to
the carbon linked to the halogen
· Tertiary haloalkanes have 3 R groups attached to the
carbon linked to the halogen…read more

Slide 3

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Physical properties
Polarity
· C-X¯ bond is polar due to
difference in electronegativity.
Halogens are more electronegative(
decreases down the group) than
carbon
Solubility
· Insoluble in water
Boiling point
· Increases
­ With increased chain length
­ As we go down the halogen group
­ Due to increasing VDW forces between
larger molecules because there are
more e¯s…read more

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Reactivity of the C-X bond
During reactions the C-X bond breaks . How easily
this happens depends on:
­ C-X¯ polarity
­ C-X enthalpy
· Bond polarity
­ C atom has a charge as it is e¯ deficient. Open to
attack be e¯ rich species called nucleophiles.
­ Nucleophiles are species which can donate a lone
pair of e¯ to form a bond to an e¯ deficient C atom
(either a ­ve ion or a an atom with a charge)
­ Examples include :OH¯, NH, CN¯
­ C-F : C has a bigger charge , therefore more easily
attacked by Nu
· Bond enthalpy
­ C-F: F is the smallest atom so has a strong attraction
for shared e-s
­ As we go down the group, the shared e-s are
further from the nucleus so the C-X bond becomes
weaker.
­ C-I is the most reactive.…read more

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Nucleophilic substitution
· Haloalkanes with NaOH(aq) or KOH(aq)
· Warm ethanol used as a solvent, hydrolysis reaction
1) OH is attracted towards the + on the C atom
2) E- pair on :OH- is donated to C atom
3) Increased e- density on C atom repels the e-s in the
C-Br bond to Br
4) C-Br bond is broken C-OH bond is formed producing
an alcohol…read more

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Nucleophilic substitution
· Haloalkanes with cyanide ions
· Warm/hot ethanoic KCN or NaCN,
forming nitriles…read more

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