Chemistry AS ES CI 11.4 ES3 ES4

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  • Created by: A.B.
  • Created on: 17-02-14 17:45
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  • ES The 'p' block: Group 7 CI 11.4, ES3 and ES4
    • Physical Properties
      • Appearance and state at room temperature
        • Fluorine
          • pale yellow gas
        • Chlorine
          • Green gas
        • Bromine
          • dark red liquid
        • Iodine
          • Shiny Black Solid
      • Volatility
        • Fluorine
          • gas
        • Chlorine
          • gas
        • Bromine
          • liquid quickly forms brown gas on warming
        • Iodine
          • Sublimes on warming to give purple vapour
      • Solubility in water
        • Fluorine
          • Reacts with water
        • Chlorine
          • Slightly soluble to give pale green solution
        • Bromine
          • Slightly soluble to give red brown solution
        • Iodine
          • Barely soluble, gives a brown solution
      • Solubility in organic compounds
        • Fluorine
          • Soluble
        • Chlorine
          • soluble to give a pale green solution
        • Bromine
          • Soluble to give a red solution
        • Iodine
          • Soluble to give a violet solution
      • Diatomic non-polar molecules
        • Intramolecular bonds are covalent and the intermolecular bonds are ID-ID
      • Relative Reactivity
        • Decreases down group
      • Halide and Silver ions
        • Ag+ (aq) + X-(aq) -> AgX (s)
          • Chlorine, white precipitate
          • Bromine, cream precipitate
          • Iodine, yellow precipitate
      • Displacement reactions
        • Elements displaces those lower down the group
      • Redox Reactions
        • Halogens are all reactive. They tend to remove electrons. They are oxidising agents.
    • Redox reactions involving halogens
      • The strength of the oxidising agent decreases down the group
    • Electrolysis of solutions containing halide ions
    • Storage and transport of halogens
      • Fluorine is very reactive -> too reactive to store
        • When needed for chemical reactions, it is made in situ (as it is needed) by electrolysing liquid hydrogen fluoride
      • Chlorine is a highly toxic as. It os transported by rail or road tanker as a liquid
      • Bromine is transported in lead lined steel tanks supported in strong metal frames. Transport routes are planned to minimise the risk of accidents (avoid residential areas)
  • Fluorine is very reactive -> too reactive to store
    • When needed for chemical reactions, it is made in situ (as it is needed) by electrolysing liquid hydrogen fluoride

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