There are three ways in which memory can be encoded in the memory, semantically, visually and acoustically.
As atkinson and shiffrin regarded the STM as a unitary store, much investigation has gone into how the information is encoded into the STM. Research into this have been based around substitution errors as it is said that encoding in the Stm is based on sound One of these types of research was by Conrad in 1964.
A - the aim is to see how information is encoded into the STM.
P - They showed a random sequence of six consonants very rapi d on the screen with two types of words. Acoustically similar, and acoustically disimilar. The participants were then asked to recall the letters in serial order.
R - given that the normal digit span is seven, participants made frequent errors on recall involved in…