Political authority - background.
- Govt = conciliar.
Liz made decisions on major policies. - council advised her.
Cecil ill in 1571 - stood down as principle secretary - Walsingham took his place. + Thomas Smith.
Cecil - made Lord Burghley and Lord Treasurer - to say thanks.
Leicester remained favourite - sent to Nlands.
When Councilors could not influence her - used parliament.
- puritans 1571-72. laws on caths, execution of norfolk and marian plots.
Parliament very rarely body of oppostion.
- Paul wentworth - demanded execution of MQS.
- Peter Wentworth complained of Queen's management of parliament - rumours & message. - he was imprisoned in tower.
Queen would not allowed - marriage and succession 1566 + 1593 and religion 1571 - discussed in parliament.
- control - veto - 1571-72
parliament took her on over monopolies - 1599 + 1601
Authority decline 1590s'
- faction rivalry.
Cecils v Essex.
Cecils - respectful of Queen's authority. - worked with her, servants of the crown.
- She was always in charge - but her authority was challenged by Essex.
- her favourite.
- from old nobility
-Leicester's step son
- stepped into his shoes 1588
- he was the son she never had - despite tantrums, showed she could handle him.
- wanted him to do well, groomed him for high political office
-he was too immature. - if he had seen this he could've done well.
- she treated 2 main factions fairly.
- 1593 he was made a privy councillor
- Liz spoilt Essex by allowing him to build up reputation as a military commander and a hero - leading expedition in 1590s , to attack Cadiz, and England nearly paid dearly for this - 2 armadas. Essex took fleet out of home waters and left England undefended without achieving anything lasting.
- disobeyed her orders in France 1591, wasted her money and did not relieve without relieving siege of Rouen
-1597 , made Essex Earl Marshall
- Liz never gave way and let him control her politically
- did not let him dominate Cecil's by influencing public appointments - always appointed ones Burghley recommended - best for job.
- Essex challenged her authority
* built up power base in counties - pressurised local gentry to declare favour to him - often dependent on him for land and local status - bullied them.
* 1598 - he swore at the Queen over army size to Ireland. - she slapped him and he had to be stopped from drawing his sword - treason.
- she gave him a last chance - Ireland 1599.
- 16'000 men as he had asked.
- disobeyed her orders and instead of using the army against O'Neill not Earl of Tyrone (rebelling since 1594) - restore english control. - came to an agreement with him
- Liz finally abandoned him - would not receive him when he returned. - refused to renew his sweet wine monopoly.
- gave him…