Ecosystems Overview

Ecosystems - An ecosystem is a geographical area where plants, animals, landscape and climate intersect. They exist at a range of scales.

  • The Biotic components of an ecosystem are all living things from plants to animals
  • The Abiotic components of an ecosystem is all the non-living things from sun-light to rainfall to rocks

In an ecosystem all these interact (for example, the plants an animals (Biotic factors) are adapted to the climate (Abiotic factor)).

Energy flows through an ecosystem

All energy in the ecosystem is obtained from the sun. Plants change it into food and then animals get the energy from eating the plants. This energy can also be passed from one animal to the other as one animal eats the other.


  • BiosphereSurface zone or immediate atmosphere. Habiats and therefore ecosystems  can only exist here.
  • Microhabitats - Very small scale ecosystems such as under a rock.
  • Community - all species in ecosystem
  • Habitat - A zone in a specific ecosystem with particular conditions with approprately


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