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Geography Content Notes

Physical Geography

The Living World


Ecosystem: An ecosystem is a living community of biotic and abiotic plants and
animals which is linked to the natural environment where they live.

Biome: a large ecosystem

Biotic: living
Abiotic: nonliving

Key components
Plants Water
Animals Soil or…

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Tropical Rainforest:
Hot all year: 27-30C
Wet all year: 2000-3000mm

Global Distribution:
Central America
North and East South America (Amazon)
Central Africa
South East Asia

Herb layer
Ground layer

Plant Adaptations:
Thick waxy leaves with drip-tips- water runs off without
damaging the plant
Buttress roots…

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Warm summers: 16-20C
Mild winters: 3-8C
Precipitation all year: 550-1500mm

Global Distribution:
Most of Europe
South east USA

Fertile (thick layer of leaf fall)

Canopy layer
Sub-canopy layer
Herb layer
Ground layer

Plant adaptations:
Deciduous (lose leaves in winter) to reduce water loss

Hot Deserts:…

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Hot in winter: 20-30C
Dry all year: <250mm a year

Global Distribution:
North Africa
Middle east
South west USA

Not very fertile

Sparse plant growth : cacti and thorn bushes

Plant adaptations:
Long roots to reach water or spread out to catch any rainfall
Cacti have…

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Chemical Weathering: When chemicals break down rock and materials
Biological Weathering: When tree roots burst through pavements.
Physical Weathering: Weathering due to the climate: freezethaw weathering (

Mass Movement
Rockfall- Fragments of rock break away from the cliff face, often due to freeze-thaw
Landslide- Blocks of rock slide downfall…

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5. This is repeated and the cliff slowly retreats backwards
6. The left behind rock is the platform

Headlands and Bays Formation
1. Form where there are alternating bands of hard rock and soft rock
2. The soft rock erodes quickly whereas the hard rock erodes slower
3. The fast-eroding…

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5. The stack then erodes further to create a stump which is a small amount of rock under

Transportation and Deposition...

Transportation Landforms
Longshore Drift
1. Waves follow the direction of wind
2. Swash carries wave up shore as is at an angle
3. The backwash carries sediment into…

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Solution- Soluble materials or chemicals dissolved in the water and carried along.

Deposition Landforms
1. Form at sharp bends in the coastline
2. Longshore drift transports sand shingle past the bend and deposits it int he sea
3. This build up of sand and shingle begins to create an…

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1. This occurs when a spit grows from the mainland to an island, connecting the two

Coastal Flooding...

Rising Sea Levels Effects
Impact Positive Negative

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Economic Periodic flooding can Tourism revenue lost
help fertilise farm land Crops can get ruined
Damage repair

Social Raises awareness so Family life disrupted as
people can do roads are cut off
something about it Deaths possible
Angered if crops or land is
Loss of houses
Loss of jobs…


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