Key Words

call centres
offices where groups of people work responding to telephone quires from customers.
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the relationship between two or more countries usually in terms of trade.
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periods of time when large groups of employees refuse to work due to disagreements over pay or other grievances
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a process of decline in certain types of manufacturing industries, which continues over a long period of time. It then results in fewer people being employed in this sector and falling production.
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assisted areas/enterprise zones
areas that qualify for government help. Enterprise zones on a smaller scale than assisted ares.
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carbon footprint
the amount of carbon generated by things people do, including creating a demand for out of season food.
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the use of living things such as crops like maize to produce ethanol (an alcohol based fuel) or biogas from animal waste. It's the use of crops that has become important.
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multiplier effect
where initial investment and jobs lead to a knock on effect creating further jobs and providing money to generate services
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where profits made by the company are taken out of the country to the country of origin and so it doesn't benefit the host country
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food miles
the distance food travels from where it's grown to where it's eaten
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the increasing links between two countries throughout the world and the greater interdependence that comes from this.
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Transnational Corporations (TNC)
A corporation or enterprise that operates in more than one country
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Kyoto Protocol
an international agreement to cut CO2 emissions to help reduce global warming
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advanced factories
where buildings for productions are built speculatively in the hope that their presence to buy or rent and existing factory, removing the need to find a site or suitable premisis
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(in rivers) erosion caused by the river picking up stones and rubbing them against the bed and banks of the channel in the flow
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air masses
large bodies of air (many thousands of km2 in area) that form over polar or tropical source regions such as North Africa
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alternative energy
energy sources that provide an alternative to fossil fuels
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the hight of the land
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alternative fuels
fuel sources that provide an alternative to fossil fuels.
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policies that seek to limit population growth by birth control.
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(in rivers) gradual wearing down of the particles by erosion as they collide with each other, making them smaller and rounder.
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water from a breaking wave which flows under gravity down a beach and returns to the sea
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a feature produced when erosion creates an indent in the coastline
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the number and variety of living species found in a specific area
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fuel sources derived from agricultural crops
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a plant and animal community covering a large area of the Earth's surface
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the living part - plants and animals - of the Earth.
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birth rate
the number of births per 1,000 people in a year
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brownfield site
a piece of land that has been used and abandoned, and is now awaiting some new use
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climate change
long term changes in temperature and precipitation
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coastal flooding
the inundation of low-lying areas in coastal areas and regions
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coastal management
the processes and plans applies to coastal areas by local authorities and agencies
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commercial farming
a type of agriculture producing crops and livestock for sale and processing
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people who travel from their home to their place of work, the distance being such that the journey most often involves some sort of transport
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congestion charging
a system of traffic control that charges drivers who enter the congested central areas of a city
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managing the environment in order to preserve, protect or restore it
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constructive waves
small, weak waves with a low frequency that tend to add sand and other sediment to the coastline because they do not break with much force
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coral reef
a hard stony ridge, just above or below the surface of the sea, formed by the external skeletons of millions of tiny creatures called polyps.
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core region
the most important social, political and economic area of a country or global region - the centre of power
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chemical erosion caused by the dissolving of rocks and minerals by water
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counter urbanisation
the movement of people and employment from major cities to smaller settlements and rural areas located just beyond the city, or to more distant smaller cities and towns.
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death rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a year
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the social, economic and environmental decline of an area, often through de-industrialisation
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a condition in which something (e.g. a country) is only able to survive by relying on outside support (e.g. from another a country)
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the decline of a population, both by natural processes and, occasionally, by government policy
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the dropping of sediment that was being carried by a moving force
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derelict land
land on which factories or houses have been demolished
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destructive waves
large, powerful waves with a high frequency that tend to take sediment away from the beach, because their backwash is greater than their swash.
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More economically developed countries (MEDC)
countries at a late stage of development. They are generally quite rich, with a high proportion of people working in secondary and, especially, tertiary occupations. Also known as More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs)
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Less economically developed countries (LEDC)
countries at an early stage of development. They are generally poor, with a high proportion of people working in primary occupations. Also known as Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs)
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economic and social progress that leads to an improvement in the quality of life for an increasing proportion of the population
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discordant coast
a coastline created when alternating hard and soft rocks occur at right angles to the coast, and are eroded at different rates.
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eco footprint
a measure of how much land is needed to provide a place (e.g. a city) with all the energy, water and materials it needs, including how much is needed to absorb its pollution and waste.
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economic development
the progress made by a country or area in creating wealth through businesses, industry and trade.
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a community of plants and animals that interact with each other and their physical environment.
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emerging countries
countries that have begun to experience high rates of economic growth, as for example Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa (the so-called BRICS countries); also known as the recently industrialising countries (RICs)
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enhanced greenhouse effect
The increased greenhouse effect resulting from human action (emission of greenhouse gases) and leading to global warming
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environmental pollution
the degradation of the environment through the emission of toxic waste material
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the wearing away and removal of material by a moving force, such as a breaking wave
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extreme climate
a climate that is unusually challenging, usually in terms of its temperature conditions or type and extent of precipitation.
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the distance of sea over which winds blow and waves move towards the coastline
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flood plain
the relatively flat area forming the valley floor on either side of a river channel, which is sometimes flooded
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flood risk
the predicted frequency of inundation (floods) in an area
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food chains
the interconnections between different organisms (plants and animals) that rely upon one another as their source of food
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foreign district investment
when a business from one country invests money in a company in another country or builds its own factory or office in another country
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GDP Per Capita
Gross Domestic Product per person, is the total wealth created within a country divided by its population
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Gas Exporting Countries Forum
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Gender inequality index
the part of the UN Development Programme reporting system that considers the disadvantages (e.g. health, education) facing females in all countries.
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glacial region
an area that is covered by ice (either a valley glacier or much larger ice sheets)
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global economy
the evolving economic system that increasingly links the countries of the world; it involves the exploitation of resources and the production and marketing of goods and services
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global city
a major urban area that has a significant role in controlling the international flows of capital and trade
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global shift
the movement of manufacturing from developed countries to cheaper production location in developing countries
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global warming
a trend in whereby global temperatures rise over time, linked in modern times with the human production of greenhouse gases.
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Gross National Income (GNI)
a measurement of economic activity that is calculated by dividing the gross (total) national income by the size of the population. GNI takes into account not just the value of goods and services, but also the income earned from investments overseas.
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produced items and materials
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green belt
an area around a city composed mainly of farmland and parkland in which development is strictly controlled. Its purpose is to stop the outward spread of the city
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greenfield site
a piece of land that has not been built on before, but is now being considered for development
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greenhouse gasses
those gases in the atmosphere that absorb outgoing radiation, hence increasing the temperature of the atmosphere
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hard engineering
using solid structures to resist forces of erosion
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hard rock coast
a coastal region composed of resistant materials.
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a part of the coastland that protrudes into the sea
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human development index
a measure of development that uses four economic and social indicators to produce an index figure that allows comparison between countries
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HEP (Hydroelectric Power)
the use of fast flowing water to turn turbines which produce electricity.
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electricity generated by turbines that are driven by moving water
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ice age
a period in the Earth's past when the polar ice caps were much larger than today
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not allowing water to pass through
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the process whereby industrial activity (particularly manufacturing) assumes a greater importance in the economy of a country or region
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infant mortality rate
the number of deaths of children (under the age of one) per thousand live births a year
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integrated coastal zone management
the system of dividing the UK coastline into zones that can be manages holistically
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integrated river management
a holistic system of managing rivers that takes an overview of the whole river basin and the relationship between its different parts
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lines of weakness in a rock that water can pass along
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disposal of rubbish by burying it and covering it over with soil
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the position of a place north or south of the Equator, expressed in degrees
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life expectancy
the average number of years a person might be expected to live
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little ice-age
a period of slight global cooling that lasted from around the mid-fifteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century
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longshore drift
the movement of material along a coast by breaking waves
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mass movement
the downslope movement, by gravity, of soil and/or rock by the processes of slumping, falling, sliding and flowing.
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millennium development goals (MDG)
the development goals agreed by world governments at the UN summit in September 2000
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natural causes
those processes and forces that are not controlled by humans
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natural change
the change (an increase or a decrease) in population numbers resulting from the difference between birth and death rates over one year
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natural increase
the difference between birth rate and death rate
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natural recourses
those materials found in the natural world that are useful to man, and that we have the technology and willingness to use
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newly industrialised countries (NIC's)
countries which experienced rapid economic growth during the second half of the twentieth century as a result of industrialisation, as for example Malaysia, Hong Kong (now part of China), Taiwan and Singapore.
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non renewable resources
those resources - like coal or oil - that cannot be 'remade', because it would take millions of years for them to form again
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nomadic pastoralism
a type of farming where farmers have no permanent land and migrate with their cattle, etc. from one place to another
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organic agriculture
farming systems that use no artificial chemicals
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a situation where the population of an area cannot be fully supported by the available resources. The symptoms include a low (even declining) standard of living, overcrowding and high unemployment.
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allowing water to pass through
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the presence of chemicals, noise, dirt or other substances which have harmful or poisonous effects on an environment
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small air spaces found in a rock or other material that can be filled with water
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a state of shortage of money and goods, usually measured in terms of average wealth and income in a society.
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poverty cycle
a set of processes that maintain a group or society in poverty
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pre-industrial stage
that period in the development of a society when manufacturing industry has yet to develop
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when moisture falls from the atmosphere - as rain, hail sleet or snow
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quality of life
the degree of well-being (physical and psychological) felt by an individual or a group of people in a particular area. This can relate to their jobs, wages, food, amenities in their homes, and the services they have access to, such as schools, doctor
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development that aims to stimulate growth in areas that have experienced decline
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growth in areas that have experienced decline in the past
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renewable resources
resources, such as forests, that can be maintained by management
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remote countryside/rural areas
rural areas that are distant from and thus little affected by urban areas and their populations.
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river cliff
steep outer edge of a meander where erosion is at its maximum
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sea level rise
the increase in the level of the sea, relative to the land
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usually sand, mud or pebbles deposited by a river
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those things that are provided, bought and sold that are not tangible
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slip-off slope
inner gentle slope of a meander where deposition takes place
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soft rock coast
a coastal area made up of easily eroded materials
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the weathered remains of rock (sand, silt and clay) to which decayed organic matter (such as the remains of leaves) has been added.
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material deposited by the sea which grows across a bay or the mouth of a river
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a detached column of rock located just-off shore
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a stack that has collapsed, leaving a small area of rock above sea-level.
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the outward spread of the built-up area, often at lower densities compared with the older parts of a town or city.
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superpower countries
the world's most powerful and influential nations - the USA and, increasingly, China and India
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supply chain
a sequence of steps or stages involved in moving a product or service from the supplier to the customer. In the case of a product, the chain may involve the processing of raw materials into components, and the assembly of components into finished pro
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the ability to keep something (such as the quality of life) going at the same rate or level. From this stems the idea that current generation of people should not damage the environment in ways that will threaten future generations' environment (or q
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sustainable development
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the (limiting) the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
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sustainable resources
resources - such as wood - that can be renewed if we act to replace them as we use them.
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the forward movement of water up a beach after a wave has broken
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temperature climate
a climate that is not extreme (in terms of heat, cold, dryness or wetness)
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a situation where the resources of an area could support a larger population without any lowering of the standard of living or where a population is too small to develop its resources effectively.
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upper source
the source area of a river, often in an upland or mountainous region
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urban development corporations
organisations set up by central government to coordinate rapid improvements in derelict urban areas. Their aims were to improve the environment, to give cash grants to attract firms, to renovate buildings and to give advice to firms thinking of movin
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urban fringe
the countryside adjacent to or surrounding an urban area
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urban sprawl
urban growth, usually weakly controlled, into surrounding rural and semi-rural area
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the development and growth of towns or cities
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water management schemes
programmes to control rivers, generally organised by local or central government
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sudden descent of a river or stream over a vertical or very steep slope in its bed
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the breakdown and decay of rock by its natural processes, without the involvement of any moving forces
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world cities
the leading cities of the world, such as London, New York and Tokyo; major centres in the economic networks being produced by globalisation. They are major centres of finance, business and political influence, and are home to the headquarters of many
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youthful population
a population in which there is a high percentage of people under the age of 16 (or sometimes 18)
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zero population growth
when natural change and migration change cancel each other out, and there is no change in the total population.
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Card 2


the relationship between two or more countries usually in terms of trade.



Card 3


periods of time when large groups of employees refuse to work due to disagreements over pay or other grievances


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Card 4


a process of decline in certain types of manufacturing industries, which continues over a long period of time. It then results in fewer people being employed in this sector and falling production.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


areas that qualify for government help. Enterprise zones on a smaller scale than assisted ares.


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