Ecology Lecture 7

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Interactions between organisms


(+,0) = By-product mutualism (commensalism). 

Mutualism investment (+,+)


-->Non-symbiotic:Cleaner fish,Seed/spore dispersal, Pollination 

A symbiotic mutualism

Lichens: Mix of fungus and photosynthetic microbe: - algae and/or cyanobacteria  

Mycorrhizae =‘fungus & root’.- Mutualism – usually both benefit.

Approx 80-90% land plants.


Pollination - advertising for sex.

Pollination - ideas of flowers being for sex develop in late 17th century.

A complication: Not all


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