Control and Management
Pollutantssubstances that have an adverse effect on the environment
Toxica word meaning much the same as poisonous
Radiation high energy waves from nuclear fuels that cause damage to cells
Organic a substance that has come from a living organism
Species a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Insecticides chemicals used to kill insects that reduce the yield of crops
Herbicides chemicals used to kill weeds that compete with the crop plants
Fungicides chemicals used to kill fungi that can damage seeds and leaves
Sources of pollution Pollution affects the air, the land, fresh water and the sea. You are expected to know that the main sources of pollution are from:
industry - soot, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oil, heavy metals and radiation
agriculture - pesticides, run off from silage, excess fertilisers and slurry
households - sewage, detergents, litter and domestic waste
Modern society requires increasing use of energy, but there are drawbacks associated with both of the main ways in which energy is produced. These areburning fossil fuel reserves (coal, gas and oil) and from nuclear power.
Burning fossil fuels creates soot and smogs which restrict photosynthesis in plants and coats the environment with grime. In addition sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide are produced. These lead to acid rain and global warming. We are also using up resources which can never be replaced.
The main alternative is nuclear power which carries a risk of dangerous leaks of radiation at high levels and involves the constant release of low level radiation in the cooling water from power stations. Radiation is known to increase the risk of cancer. The used fuel has to be stored and the long term effects of storing highly radioactive materials are unknown.
examples of how pollution can be controlled :
legislation by parliament, for example the Clean Air Acts
European agreements to decrease sulphur dioxide emissions
world agreements to reduce carbon dioxide production
removal of sulphur and nitrogen oxides from flue gases from power station chimneys
fitting catalytic converters to car exhausts
use of lead free petrol
treatment of sewage before releasing it into rivers