Discuss the development of a child's sense of self (8+16)

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A01: Selman'76 theory of perspective taking (8)

  • Adapted from Kohlberg's and Eisenberg's theories to investigate moral and pro-social development to the study of perspective taking.

Undifferentiated (egocentric) perspective taking (3-6):

  • Can distinguish between self and others but can't distinguish between thoughts and feelings of self and others.
  • Can identify emotional states but cannot link it to social behaviour that caused them.

Social-informational perspective-taking (6-8):

  • Able to seperate perspectives of others from their own.
  • Can only identify one perspective at a time rather than mixing different viewpoints.

Self-reflective perspective taking (8-10):

  • Able to put themselves in the position of others.
  • Still only one perspective at a time.

Mutual perspective taking (10-12):

  • Able to look a situation from their own perspective and others at the same time. Mutually and simutaneously and can view from 3rd person perspective.

Social and conventional system of perspective taking (12+):

  • Understanding that others viewpoints is not sufficient to reach an agreement and thats why agreed social conventions are needed to keep order.


  • Durkin'95 believed that the extent to which


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