Explanation For Development Of A Sense Of Self And Others

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  • Created on: 21-06-12 16:41
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Explanation For Development Of A Sense Of Self And Others ­ Andrew F
AO1's AO2's
1 Meltzoff and Moore propose that very 1 Supporting research comes from
young babies have knowledge of observational studies of newborns that are
themselves as individuals and are capable capable of imitating a person who sticks their
of imitation. This forms the basis of true tongue out. This suggests the baby can
psychological self awareness which is differentiate between themselves and others.
needed for success in the social world.
2 Animal research has shown that baby 2 Also, the experiment poses ethical issues
monkeys are also capable of regarding animal rights. Some would argue
psychological self awareness, despite that it is unethical to use monkeys for
previous thought that it was a uniquely research.
human trait.
3 Meltzoff suggested that other parts of 3 Meltzoff supported his theory with an
psychological self awareness were also experiment using young children. Despite
formed in early infancy. He showed that watching an adult dropping beads whilst
children of 18 months could predict the attempting to count them, the children were
intentions of others. able work out the adult's intention and count
to the end of the task.
4 This theory disputes Piaget, who suggested
that preoperational children (under 7) are
unable to take perspectives as well as his
three mountains task findings.
5 However other research does suggest that
Piaget's methodology was limited in terms of
the questions put to the children.
4 Eisenberg proposed that true 6 This supports Vygotsky's work, which
psychological self awareness is developed suggests that cognitive development is driven
around age 3 and is formed due to social by communication in the social world.
5 Recent research by Baron Cohen 7 Theory Of Mind is supported by the biological
suggests that at age 4, the child develops approach as at age 4, the neural circuitry to
a Theory Of Mind, which enables them to process complex cognitions is developed.
know their thinking is individual and predict This suggests that a biological explanation
the thinking of others. underpins self awareness.
8 However other Psychologists disagree with
this and state that nurture, or socialisation
and learning are more important than nature
or innate factors.
6 Selman proposes that true psychological
self awareness occurs due to a mixture of
both. As the child matures biologically, it is
able to take on a greater societal role and
therefore have greater social interaction,
furthering development.
7 Selman believed there were 5 stages of 9 Selman supported his theory using moral
development. Undifferentiated thought dilemmas which were discussed with the
stage distinguish between self and children of different ages
others. Socialinformational stage aware
of others perspectives, assume this is due
to differing information. Selfreflective
stage aware that the same information

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Explanation For Development Of A Sense Of Self And Others ­ Andrew F
can form different views. Mutual stage
can consider perspectives simultaneously.
Societal stage ­ aware of how society may
influence perspectives.
10 An example of this is a girl who is torn
between rescuing a kitten from a tree and
obeying her father who told her not to climb
trees. This study gives evidence on the
different stages of social thought.…read more


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