Diabetes Revision

  • Created by: PaulaMcC
  • Created on: 23-03-22 13:27


Diabetes occurs when your blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high.

Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition causing an absolute defiecincy of the hormone insulin. It is an Endocrine Disorder

 Islet of Langerhans

 1.     Insulin is secreted by beta cells in the pancreas and it is an anabolic hormone.

2.     When we consume food, insulin moves glucose from blood to muscle, liver, and fat cells as insulin level increases.

3.     The functions of insulin include the transport and metabolism of glucose for energy, stimulation of storage of glucose in the liver and muscle, serves as the signal of the liver to stop releasing glucose, enhancement of the storage of dietary fat in adipose tissue, and acceleration of the transport of amino acid into cells.

4.     The hormones insulin and glucagon maintain a constant level of glucose in the blood by stimulating the release of glucose from the liver.


Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

·        Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by destruction of the pancreatic beta cells.

·        A common underlying factor in the development of type 1 diabetes is a genetic susceptibility.

·        Destruction of beta cells leads to a decrease in insulin production, unchecked glucose production by the liver and fasting hyperglycaemia.

·        Glucose taken from food cannot be stored in the liver anymore but remains in the blood stream.

·        The kidneys will not reabsorb the glucose once it has exceeded the renal threshold, so it will appear in the urine and be called glycosuria.

·        Excessive loss of fluids is accompanied by excessive excretion of glucose in the urine leading to osmotic diuresis.

·        There is fat breakdown which results in ketone production, the by-product of fat breakdown.


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


·        Type 2 diabetes mellitus has major problems of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion.

·        Insulin could not bind with the special receptors so insulin becomes less effective at stimulating glucose uptake and at regulating the glucose release.

·        There must be increased amounts of insulin to maintain glucose level at a normal or slightly elevated level.

·        However, there is enough insulin




Friend of mine was just diagnosed with the type 2 , she is really upset