Pathophysiology Revision

  • Created by: NightFury
  • Created on: 03-10-22 15:49
The scientific study of the causes of disease is known as
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The smallest living unit of the body is the
2 of 75
The working together of the cells, tissues and organs is called
3 of 75
Endocrine signalling involves the release of
4 of 75
The transmission of a molecular signl from a cell's exterior to its interior is known as
Signal transduction
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Pharmacokinetics is the study of
The action of the body on drugs
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Fluoxetine can increase the concentration of the antypsychotic Clozapine by affecting metabolism by liver enzymes. This is an example of:
Enzyme inhibition
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What is the definition of plasma half-life
The time it takes for the plasma concentration of a drug to reduce by half
8 of 75
A drug which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism will have
A low bioavailability
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The four cardinal signs of inflammation are
Redness, warmth, swelling, pain
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The following would be considered an INTERNAL source of tissue damage
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The first immune cell that will encounter an invading microorganism is likely to be
12 of 75
The following inflammatory mediators contribute to pain
Prostaglandins and bradykinins
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Plasma proteins leaving the blood and entering an inflamed tissue include all of the following except:
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The main cells involved in chronic inflmmation are
Macrophages and lymphocytes
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Chronic inflammation is associated with all of the following except
Infiltration of neutrophils
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A patient has been on 40mg of prednisolone for two weeks after a severe exacerbation of COPD. It is important for the dose to be reduced slowly:
To reduce the risk of acute adrenal insufficiency
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The following is NOT a major action of the body's main natural glucocorticoid, cortisol.
Increased sodium and water retention
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What is the definition of a commensal microorganism
A microorganism that causes disease
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Is Aciclovir an antiviral agent?
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Is Clotrimazole is an antibacterial agent?
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The first line of defence which changes very little during out lifetime is called:
Innate immune system
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White blood cells responsible for adaptive immunity
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A molecule that will stimulate the adaptive immune response
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Immunity gained by acquiring "ready-made" antibodies
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Deficiencies in the cell-mediated immune response will lead particularly to infections by
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This property of the adaptive immune response is the basis of immunity to previously encountered infections
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The major antibody class involved in the adaptive immune response is:
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Autoimmunity arises following a breakdown "self_____"
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The type of immunoglobin produced in high amounts in those with allergy:
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The main target of HIV infection:
CD4+ T cell
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Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by
Unregulated cell growth
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The cell cycle
Regulates cell growth and proliferation
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Mutations in proto-oncogenes lead to
All of the answers
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Mutation of tumor suppressor genes
Needs to occur in both copies of the gene in the cancer
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Requires vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
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BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes
Are tumour suppressor gene
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Uses ionizing radiation
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During an inflammatory response, which inflammatory mediators "sensitise" nociceptors
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Pain arising from a "pulled" muscle would be classified as
Nociceptive - somatic
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Name the neurotransmitter molecule that is released in response to toxins or irritants in the GI tract...
Serotonin (5-HT)
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Name the region of the brain that is directly stimulated by factors in the circulation that trigger emesis
CTZ (chemoreceptor trigger zone)
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The drug aprepitant is an antagonist for which neurotransmitter?
Substance P
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The vomiting centre is a neural network in
Medulla Oblongata
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The build-up of fatty plaques within the wall of arteries
45 of 75
Consequences of atherosclerosis include the following, except
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A blood clot within an artery is a
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Hypertension of unknown cause is known as
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How do ACE inhibitors work
They block the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
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"shortness of breath" is called
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In a patient with COPD which clinical feature is least likely to be present?
Airway obstruction that is reversible
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Increased stimulation of sympathetic fibres to the airways brings about:
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The enzyme salivary amylase starts digestion of starch, a complex carbohydrate. Complex carbohydrates are finally broken down into:
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Where is the most of the water absorbed in the GI tract
Small intestine
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What do stool softeners do
Lubricate and coat stools with lipids
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A lesion that erodes the skin or a mucosa is called
An ulcer
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Hydrochloric acid secretion by the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa is inhibited by
Proton pump inhibitors
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Those with Crohn's disease may have reduced ability to absorb vitamin B12 in the ileum. This can lead to
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Which chemical mediator helps protect the stomach by stimulating mucus production?
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Insulin is produced by
Beta cells in the pancreas when the blood glucose level rises
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An increase in plasma blood glucose level results in
Increased insulin and decreased glucagon secretion by the pancreas
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Type 1 diabetes is caused by
Autoimmune destruction of beta cells
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Type 2 diabetes is caused by
Insulin resistance and/or beta cell failure
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The acute complication of diabetes are
Hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic syndrome
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Type 1 diabetes is treated with
Insulin, physical activity, and diet
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The 8 care processes that must be performed annually for all individuals living with diabetes include
HbA1c, blood pressure, cholesterol, eGFR, creatinine
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Absence seizures are a type of
Generalised seizures
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The role of cortisol is important in depression. It has been found that
Increased cortisol can inhibit neurogenesis in the hippocampus
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The monoamine theory of depression states that in depression
Levels of monoamines, for example, serotonin are reduced
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How might inflammation be involved in depression
Cytokines act to lower levels of serotonin
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The kidney tubules carry out which three processes
Filtration, secretion, excretion
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Patients with kidney disease may need to reduce the dose of some medication because
Excretion of drugs will be increased
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Erythropoietin stimulating agents help to correct anemia by
Stimulation of red blood cell production
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Do treatments help to reverse the damage to the kidneys?
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Other medication that might be useful to help prevent chronic kidney disease includes
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This is very helpful, thank you NightFury

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