Cultural variations in attachment

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Cross-cultural similarities

Ainsworth's Uganda study (1967) (Uganda)

Aim: to observe the various universals in attachment behaviour

Findings: infants in Uganda use their mothers as a secure base for exploration and mothers of securely attached infants are more sensitive

Conclusions: mothers who show greater sensitivity to their infant's means their infant's will be securely attached compared to mother's who don't and their infant's will bhe insecurely attached

Tronick et al (1992) (Zaire)

Aim: to study the African tribe, the Efe, to see whom the primary attachment was with despite infants being breatsfed and cared for by other women

Findings: infant's breasfed by other women and looked after but usually slept with their own mother's at night and still showed a primary attachment to their mother

Conclusions: depsite such different child rearing practices, infant's at six months only have a primary attachment to their mother

Fox (1997) (Israel)

Aim: to see if attachment was greater with mothers than community nurses if infants were spending more time with the nurses 

Findings: infants showed greater attachment to mothers despite spending more time with the community nurses because mothers showed greater sensitivity

Conclusions: mothers were still the primary attachment figure despite the shared care

Cross-cultural differences

Grossman and Grossman (1991)

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