Cultural Variations in Attachment.


Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg.

  • Aim - to compare findings of studies using the Strange Situation conducted in different cultures.
  • Method - they conducted a meta-analysis of 32 studies conducted in 8 countries. There were 2000 infants involved. They compared all of the findings looking for trends in secure attachment, insecure avoidant and insecure resistant.
  • Results (means %) - Secure: 65%, Avoidant: 21%, Resistant: 14%.
  • Conclusions: 
    • Overall worldwide pattern was similar to Ainsworth's pattern.
    • Secure attachment was the most common in all countries,
    • Insecure avoidant was the next most common in every country apart from Israel and Japan.
    • In West Germany they had the highest rate of Insecure avoidant out of all the countries.

As well as differences between cultures, Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg also found differences within cultures. Their 3 studies carried out in West Germany all had very different findings.

In the two studies carried out in Japan, 1 had no insecure babies whereas the 2nd study had around 20%.

Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg noted that…


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