Class differences in achievement - internal factors

  • Labelling 
    • teachers attach labels to students based on prejudices (manners, appearance, race etc)
    • these labels become a self fulfilling prophecy (a prediction that comes true because it has been made)
    • label becomes the most important part of them - master status
    • labels can be positive or negative 
      • a positive label with a positive outcome is called the halo effect 
    • Becker - MC pupils seen as more ideal
    • Dunne and Gazeley - WC students consistently underachieve 
  • Setting and streaming
    •  put students into ability groups for lessons
    • Ball - Beachside comprehensive study
      • WC students in lower bands became disinterested and anti-school, and underachieved 
    • MC benefit from streaming whereas WC are disadvantaged 
    • Gillborn and Youdell
      • the A* to C Economy
        • schools are ranked in…


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