Chapter 2- Healthy Lifestyle

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Health, Fitness and Exercise:

Health:

A complete state of physical and mental well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Life related

Fitness:

The ability to meet the demands of the environment without undue fatigue.

Sport related

Health-related fitness:

The physical components of fitness that are considered essential to provide the individual with health and the complete state of physical well-being such as flexibility, aerobic or cardiovascular fitness and basic anaerobic fitness.

VO2 max:

The maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken in, and used, per kg of bodyweight.

Exercise:

A physical acitivity that produces a positive physiological adaptation. Exercise is deemed to be essential to achieve and maintain a good level of health.

The positive benefits to achieving Health and/or Fitness:

Psychological benefits of fat loss:

  • Increased motivation
  • A general feeling of mental well-being
  • Increased concentration
  • Increased ability to deal with stress
  • Increased confidence

Energy Expenditure and Fat Loss:

Exercise within the context of fitness:

  • Improved fitness components
  • Weight loss

Exercise within the context of health:

  • Weight management
  • Improved cardiovascular and/or cardiorespiratory efficiency and functioning
  • Improved rang of movement (ROM)

IF ENERGY IN = ENERGY OUT - BODY WEIGHT MAINTAINED

IF ENERGY IN GREATER THAN ENERGY OUT - STORE AS BODY FAT

IF ENERGY IN LESS HAN ENERGY OUT - FAT LOSS

Rate of fat loss:

Should be steady and slow- sustainable as body is able to adapt to changes.

Reducing calories:

  • Loses fluids
  • Become more efficent at surviving on less calories, less calories than before to carry out certain activites
  • Hold onto essential elements such as fat and lose less essential such as lean muscle mass
  • Ensure muscle burns fewer fat calories
  • Lower basal metabolic rate (BMR)

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)- the speed at which your body converts and uses calories to fuel activites.

Factors that will rasie BMR:

  • Eating small, frequent meals
  • Exercise
  • Muscle mass
  • Age (peak- mid 20s)
  • Height
  • Pregnancy
  • Environment- extremes
  • Hormones
  • Smoking/Caffeine

Problems of CHD:

The fat deposits will begin to reduce the available lumen of the blood vessel. The attachment of fatty plaques will reduce the elasticity of the artery.

Reduced space within the blood vessel means that heart rate increases and blood pressure increses. Reduced elasticity means the artery is not able to respond to increases in blood flow in order to maintain a constant blood pressure. As a result, the artery may rupture or there will be a blockage within the artery starving the brain or the heart which can lead to stroke or a heart attack.

Exercise can help, if it is low intensity then fats will make up a significant proportion of energy used, restricting storing and build up of fatty deposits. If intensity is high, surges of blood will flush the arteries.

Osteoporosis:

Bones become more fragile, if left untreated the bone will continue to weaken until it breaks. Bones that break as a result of osteoporosis can cause prolonged or permanent disability or even death.

Bone is a living tissue that responds to exercise…

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