CHAPTER 2: HEALTHY LIFESTYLES

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  • CHAPTER 2: HEALTHY LIFESTYLES
    • health
    • fitness
      • having the ability to deal with the demands of the environment without unjust fatigue
      • healthy but can't run a mile
      • fit for sport but suffer from depression
    • benefits
      • psychological
        • greater confidence
        • more motivation
        • better motivation
        • improved ability to cope with stress
        • greater sense of wellbeing
      • physical
        • weight management and loss
        • benefit cardio-vascular system
          • decreased blood pressure
          • decreased heart rate resting
        • respiratory systems
        • increased bone density
        • decreased risk of coronary heart disease
          • exercise uses fat as energy
            • reduces fat being deposited in vessels
            • and build up of fatty plaques leading to CHD
          • exercise increases blood flow significantly which can flush blood vessels
    • expenditure
      • intake > expenditure
        • excess energy stored as body fat
        • weight increases
      • intake = expenditure
        • maintained body weight
      • intake < expenditure
        • deficit met by using stored energy e.g. protein and fats
        • body fat levels and weight decreases
      • main ways of reducing fat and weight
        • calorific restrictions
        • increased activity
      • body's response to calorific restrictions
        • BMR is lowered
        • less calories burned
        • fat retained at expense of protein
    • BMR
      • basal metabolic rate
        • number of calories burnt at rest in order to maintain normal body function
      • increased BMR
        • eating frequent meals
        • cold or hot environment
        • caffeine / nicotine
          • raises energy expenditure
        • increased muscle mass
        • pregnancy
        • physical activity
      • decreased BMR
        • severe calorific restrictions
        • sleeping
        • age after physical maturation
          • decrease in muscle mass
        • hormones
          • thyroxin and thyroid can lower 50%
    • addressing and managing
      • obesity
        • increased calorific expenditure
        • leads to reduced body fat%
      • osteperosis
        • weight bearing and resistance
          • increased bone density and strength
        • reduces risk of fractures
      • type 2 diabetes
        • reduces the risk when combined with other factors

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