C4 Key Terms

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C4 Key Terms

Pink- Higher and Foundation Tier

Blue- Foundation Tier

Alkali metal- Element in Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, francium)

Alkaline- Having a pH greater than 7

Aquifer- Layer of rock that stores a large quantity of water

Atom- Smallest part of an element that can take part in chemical reaction

Atomic number- Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Catalyst- Substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction

Chemical symbol- Letter or pair of letters used to represent one atom of an element, e.g. H represents one atom of Hydrogen; Fe represents one atom of iron

Chlorination- Addition of chlorine to water to kill microbes

Compound- Substance made up of two or more different elements, chemically combined

Covalent bond- Shared pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

Covalent compound- Compound in which the atoms are joined together in molecules by covalent bonds

Crystal- Piece of material in which the atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in a regular three dimensional pattern

Displace- To replace (push out) an element in a compound

Displacement reaction- Reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound

Displayed formula- Description of a covalently bonded compound or element that uses symbols for atoms and that also shows the covalent bonds between the atoms

Distillation- Process by which a liquid is purified by heating it to form a gas and then condensing the gas back to a liquid in a clean container

Dot and cross diagram- Diagram that shows how the electrons are arranged in a molecule or in ions

Electron- Subatomic particle found outside the nucleus of an atom. It has a charge of -1 and a very small mass compared to protons and neutrons

Electronic structure- Arrangement of the electrons in an atom in shells around the nucleus

Element- Substance that consists only of atoms with the same atomic number

Filtration- Process by which smaller particles of solid are removed from a liquid by passing the liquid through a filter

Flame test- Means of identifying metals by observing the colour they produce…


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