C2 Topic: Areas for improvement

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Diamond Structure

  • Diamond has a giant, rigid, covalent structure
  • Each Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds with other Carbon atoms
  • Diamond has large number of covalent bonds so it is a very hard substance

Graphite Structure

  • Giant covalent structure with Carbon atoms
  • Each Carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds with other atoms in a layered structure
  • Graphite has layers that can slide past each other making it soft and slippery
  • Graphite has weak bonds between layers
  • In graphite, one electron from each Carbon atom is delocalised- delocalised electrons allow graphite to conduct heat and electricity

Nanoparticles:

Nanoparticles are tiny, tiny particles (1mx10^-9) that combine to form structures called 'Nanostructures'

Nanostructures can be manipulated so materials can be developed that have new and specific properties

Properties of Nanoparticles are different to the properties of the same materials in bulk. For example:

  • Electrons can move through an insulating layer of atoms
  • Nanoparticles are more sensitive to light, heat and magnetism
  • Nanoparticles have a high surface area in relation to their volume 

Having a larger surface area to volume ratios - means that a higher fraction of the atoms are on the surface

Nanocomposites:

Other materials can be added

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