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All substances are made of atoms. A substance that is made of only one sort of atom is called an element; there are about 100 different elements- elements are
shown in the periodic table; e.g. H, N, O, F, Br, I. The vertical columns are called groups and contain elements…

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Potassium has atomic number 19, so 19 electrons; its electron structure is 2,8,8,1

The elements in Group 0 of the periodic table are called the noble gases; they're uncreative because their atoms have similar chemical properties.

Ionic bonding Covalent bonding
Transfer electrons to form ions Share electrons to form molecules…

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Calcium carbonate Calcium oxide + Carbon dioxide
(Limestone) (Quicklime) + Carbon dioxide

Limestone and its products have many uses, e.g. to make slaked lime, mortar, cement, concrete and glass.

Most metal carbonates undergo thermal decomposition to form metal oxide and carbon dioxide; the general equation for…

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Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water- this is how limestone is damaged by acid rain: CaCO + 2HCl CaCl +HO +CO

Limewater us used as a test for carbon dioxide, it turns clear limewater murky

Limewater + carbon dioxide carbon carbonate + water

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Cement: Limestone and clay are heated together; it can be set in wet conditions

Concrete: Limestone and clay are heated, then mixed with aggregate (small stones and crushed rocks)

C1 2.5 Effects of quarrying limestone:

Environmental Social Economic
Scars landscape More useful building material Provides jobs at quarry
Dust pollution…

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C1 3.1 Extracting metals

Reactivity series (list of metals); the method of extraction depends on the metal's position in the reactivity series:

Ores are naturally occurring rocks in the Earth's crust which contain metal compounds in sufficient amounts to make it worthwhile extracting them; un-reactive metals
(e.g. gold) are found…

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Copper oxide + Carbon Copper + Carbon dioxide
2CuO + C 2Cu + CO

Oxidation Is Loss of oxygen, Reduction Is Gain of oxygen [OILRIG]

Metals that are more reactive than carbon (e.g. aluminium) are extracted by electrolysis of molten compounds. The use of large amounts of energy in the…

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Types of
Properties Uses

Carbon steel Low carbon Soft, malleable Cars

High carbon Strong, but brittle Ships

Low alloy steel Nickel Resistant to stretching

Tungsten Works at high temperatures Furnaces

Stainless steel Cr- Ni Corrosion resistant Cutlery

Aluminium and titanium

Metal Uses Properties Method of extraction

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Extracting copper from its ore

Add sulphuric acid to copper ore to Heat copper ore very strongly in a
form copper sulphate solution. The furnace (smelting) to produce crude
crude oil can be purified by electrolysis copper which can be purified by
or by displacement using scrap iron. electrolysis, for…

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Hard, tough, strong Cars, trains
Malleable (can be bent or hammered into shape) In buildings: construction
Ductile (can be drawn out into wires)
High melting point (except mercury which is a liquid)
Copper, gold and aluminium are all alloyed with
other metals to make them stronger
C1 3.6 Metallic…


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