- Quarter of all mdeication prescribed in Briatin is 'psychiatric drugs' - drugs which modify the working of the brain and affect mood and behaiour.
- Antipsychotics control symptons of schizophrenia found in 1950s.
- Antipsychotic Drugs
- Conventional antipsychotics combat the positive symptons of schizophrenia.
- They block the neurotransmitter dopamine by bunding to dopamine receptors.
- The atypical antipsychotic drugs only temporarily occupy dopamine receptors, then rapidly dissociate to allow normal dopamine transmitssion - lower side effects. (tardive dyskinesa)
- Antidepressant Drugs
- Depression is thought to be from insufficient ammounts of neurotransmitters; including seretonin.
- In normal brains, neurotransmitters are constatnly being released to stimulate neighbouring neurons.
- To terminate action, neurotransmitters are re-absorbed into nerve endings, or broken down by enzymes.
- Antidepressants work by reducing the rate of re-absorption or by blocking the enzyme which breaks dowon the neurotransmitters. Both mechanisms increase the amount of neurotransmitter available to excite neighbouring cells.
- SSRIs work by blocking the transpoter mechanism that re-absorbs seretoning in the presynaptic vell, more serteonin is in turn left in the synapse to prolong its activity.
- Research evidece shows chemotherapies work; WHO (world health organisation) reported relapse rates after one year were highest when schizophrenics were treated with placebos. 25% with chlorpromazine alone and 2%-23% when chlorpromazine was combined with family intervention... drugs play an important role. Should be combined with family support to get a greater effect.
- Ease of Use
- Chemotherapy requires little effort from the user.
- Placebo Effects
- Psychological effect is a significant factor in the effectiveness of drugs
- Kirsch reviewed 38 studies of antidepressants and found that patients recieving placebos fared almost as well as those recieving real drugs.
- Other reviews have found stronger effects for the real drugs... Mulrow…