Alcohols and ethers: preparation of alcohols and ethers

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Alcohols

Alcohols are prepared by fermentation of sugars, hydration of alkenes or nucleophilic substitution using halogenalkanes

Hydration of alkenes

  • Alkanols cn be prepared by acid-catalysed hydrolysis of alkenes
    • The hydrogen atom on the acid catalyst acts as an electrophile which bonds with the alkene (nucleophile) and becomes a carbocation intermediate
    • The oxygen ion on the water molecule acts as a nucleophile by giving an electron to the carbon atom on the other side of the double bond
    • The acid ion (base) bonds with a hydrogen atom on the water molecule and the alcohol is formed
    • This…

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