Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids: physical properties

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Boiling points

  • Aldehydes and ketones have a higher boiling point than alkanes due to permanent dipole to permanent dipole interactions which are stronger than van der Waals forces
  • Alcohols have higher boiling points than corresponding aldehydes and ketones as the hydrogen bonding in alcohol molecules are stronger than the dipole-dipole interactions
  • Acids have a higher boiling point still as they have pair up to form dimers in which each molecule has two hydrogen bonds

Solubility in water

  • Lower aldehydes and ketones form hydrogen bonds between the…


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