Yeats- September 1913

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-Based on the TRADE UNIONS dispute, the "DUBLIN LOCKOUT" whereby the workers were locked out of the factory as a working class movement against the middle class. 

- Yeats used the poem to express his feelings out the situation.

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-Iambic- used to express clarity and put across the meaning clearly.

-Simple ABAB rhyme scheme- as sometimes simple structures and strong rhymes carry messages across better.


-popular form in Irish culture - used to mock the irish citizens rather than support them. 

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Language-First stanza

-'Greasy till' synecdoche for shop/bank. Creates a bad image of money rather than the stereotypical view of money as this amazing, thing we all need. 

-'add the halfpence to the pence' - petty way to count money, counting al your little pennies. Frowns upon this rather than supporting it, perhaps a reference to the business owners in the Dublin Lockout counting all thier money, basically saying there is no communalism is Ireland anymore it is all one man for himself. 

-'for men were born to pray and save', irony. Mocking the Irish catholics, 'pray' is a pun on 'prey' suggesting religion does not make you a btter person, and in this case the religious members are part of the cause for wrong-doing.

-'Romantic the grave' REFRAIN.refers to the stereotypical image of a beautiful, free irelad such as the imagery in 'the Stolen child', a simpler idea of what Ireland could and should be.

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Language- Second stanza

-"yet they were of a different kind" , speaking of the old revolutionaries, the great 'heroes' and their aims for Ireland. Idolises these men, yet dismisses what Ireland has now become.

-'gone about the world like wind' - They had a quick effect upon Ireland, like a wind through everything and anything yet like the wind they are also gone quickly. They are no longer tangible.

-'for whom the hangman's rope was spun', all those who died for Irland, what did they atually achieve? Yeats is referring to the various deaths in the Irish revolution. 

-'Romantic Ireland's dead and gone'- Repetition.

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Language- Third Stanza

-'Was it for this the wild geese spead', questioning whether the deaths of the 'great heroes' was justified and whether it was worth it. 'Wild geese- METAPHOR for the irish men who went abroad to fight other natons. 

-'For this' , REPETITION from Yeats, keeps asking the question to remind the audience that their death was for nothing in the end.

-'delirium' suggested that they sacrified their lives for nothing. 

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Language- Fourth Stanza

-'some woman's yellow hair has maddened every mother's son'- implying that the new Ireland is petty. People are no longer concerned with important politics etc. too busy chasing women and their own petty concerns to bother with Ireland.

-'they weighed so lightly what they gave'- suggests that if they truely cared about Ireland, their life would be nothing compared. Only when people realise that their lives mean nothing does true revolution take place.

-'they're dead and gone', Yeats is telling himself to let go and wake up.

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