Why Did China Become Communist in 1949?

Revision cards for iGCSE History China (depth study).

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  • Created by: Lauren
  • Created on: 07-05-12 18:14

How Did WWII Weaken the GMD?

Chiang ruled as a dictator - disliked

250,000 men died

Rape of Nanjing - 300,000 were killed by Nationalists

Poorly trained troops who didn't trust their generals

Many people switched to support the CCP

Everyone expected GMD to win

US support and equipment - army of 2.7million

But they still lost to the CCP (also lost the civil war) - only got Taiwan

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How Did WWII Strengthen the CCP?

Mao was a very good leader - thought of the peasants ('Ideas from the Masses')

Reforms were relevant to what peasants needed - loans, training, equipment, reduced tax, sharing of land - all to promote the rural economy

Gained land once Japan left it - in countryside (peasants)

Used effective guerilla tactics and were seen to have beaten Japan

Supporters increased x3 from 1937 - 1945

Japanese Three All Campaign made everyone hate and fight Japan even more

Recitifcation Campaign (1942) - made leaders self-criticise and lose popularity

People's Republic of China announced officially on 1st October 1949

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Why Was the CCP Supported?

Peasants taught about communism and how to fight

Popular reforms in liberation areas (places they occupied)

Occupied 1/6 of the countryside and 100,000 peasants - support kept growing

Red Army were respectful to peasants (used guerilla tactics and propaganda)

GMD ruling was harsh and corrupt, only beneficial for landowners and merchants

Health reforms didn't sort the basic problems in China, and high land taxes

In the Japanese War, 4million were killed - very unpopular, people wanted it over

Chinese were treated brutally and had their lives controlled by Japanese

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Why Did the CCP Win the Civil War?

PLA forces were well trained and diciplined (guerilla tactics)

Lin Biao was a good military leader - by 1947 had N and Central China

GMD officers could move to PLA and keep their ranks - bought US equipment

GMD were badly motivated - isolated and happy to surrender

Corrupt and disunited with little wages, disloyal generals

US cut off aid to GMD in 1947

Troops were spread out, so easy to attack

Japanese war had exhausted the GMD resources and money

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