Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

  • Created by: Lauren
  • Created on: 28-12-12 13:44

Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

The Cuban revolution and the reaction of the USA- Cuba is a large island in te Caribbean Sea. It is only 144km from the coast of the USA. For many years, the USA was very happy with the political an economic situation in Cuba. US business dominated Cuba, they owned its major industries (sugar and tobacco). US tourists enjoyed holidays in Cuba, especially in the capital, Havana. The USA dominated Cuba militarily- there was a large US naval base at Guantanamo. The USA supported the leder of Cuba, Fulgencio Batista. The USA knew Batista was a corrupt and unpopular dictator. Despite this, it supported him because he was anti-communist.In 1959, US policy went terribly wrong. From 1956, a young Communist called Fidel Castro had led a campaign of guerilla warfare against Batista and eventually overthrew him in 1959. Castro took over many US owned businesses and US owned land; he gave the land to ordinary Cuban farmers. He forged close links with the USSR, led by Nikita Khrushchev. Khrushchev sent him advisers, economic aid and military equipment.

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Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

The Bay of Pigs Invasion- The USA was furious at Castro's actions. From 1959-61, there was a tense, frosty relationship between the USA and Cuba. During this time, the USA gave support to Cubans who had left Cuba to get away from Castro. In January 1961, US President Eisenhower broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba, and this policy contintues under Eisenhower's successor, Kennedy. He supplied weapons and transport for 1,500 Cuban exiles to land in Cuba and overthrow Castro. They landed at the Bay of Pigs and were met by 20,000 Cuban troops with weapons supplied by the USSR; this was humiliating for Kennedy. The failure at the Bay of Pigs was bad enough, but he also feared that it would encourage other countries to become Communist and risk becoming enemies of USA. The crisis also further stregthened Castro's position in Cuba. Khrushchev had already decided that Kennedy was weak and unwilling to use fore over Cuba. He met Kennedy in June 1961 in Vienna, but the talks did not go well and gave Khrushchev the view that the USAwould not back up its containment policy by using force. This led directly to the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962.

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Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

The beginnings of the missile crisis-After the Bay of Pigs, Khrushchev gave Castro large amounts of Soviet military equipment to prevent follow-up American-supported invasion of Cuba. The Americans became increasingly alarmed about the Soviet military build-up in Cuba. In Sept 1962, the Soviets told Kennedy that they had no intention of putting nuclear missiles in Cuba. Why did Khrushchev put missiles in Cuba?- The USSR supplied many of its allies with non-nuclear weapons. but the Cuban crisis was the first time that weapons were installed out of Soviet boundaries.There were several reasons for Khrushchev's actions:1. Khrushchev wanted to produce more nuclear warheads and close the 'missile gap' between USA+USSR 2.The USA had missiles in W.Europe and Turkey, within range of USSR. Placing missiles in Turkey would help restore the balance.3. USSR had many more cheap, medium range missiles than the USA, so placing them in Cuba was and ideal place as it is near USA coast.4. Soviet missiles in Cuba would strengthen Khrushchev's bargaining position against USA.5.Khrushchev was keen to defend Castro. Cuba was the only Communist country in the western hemisphere+had just survived the Bay of Pigs.6.Khrushchev was keen to strengthen his own political position in USSR. Missiles in Cuba would be seen as another major propaganda victory against the USA.

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Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

The beginnings of the Missile Crisis- Why did Kennedy react as he did? Part 1: Kennedy's options- On 14 October 1962, a US spy plane captured the construction of nuclear missile sites in Cuba. In the days that followed, Kennedy and his advisors had the following options: Do nothing- The USA still had a larger nuclear force than USSR. Overreacting to the missiles might lead to a nucelar war between USA+USSR. But to do nothing would be seen as weak and encourage the Soviets to challenge USA elsewhere, e.g. Berlin. Surgical Airstrike- Thi would destroy the missiles, but the US Airforce may not destroy all missiles, some may be launched against US cities and kill millions. Bombing the missile site would kill Soviet soldiers too, and then would cause Khrushchev to respond. Invasion- This would remove the missile bases and Castro from power, but it would cause an inevitable response from the Soviets, possibly an invasion of W.Berlin and nuclear war.Diplomatic Pressure-  Involvement of other countries might force the Soviets to remove the missiles. But it was very unlikely that diplomacy would cause Khrushchev to give way, so this option was seen as very weak. Blockade- This would show firm action without using immediate force. IT would give Khrushchev time to consider his next actions and USA the optio of a later airstrike or invasion if the blockade failed. But a blockade would not remove the weapons and it would e slow producing results and didnt rule out Soviet attack else where in the world, e.g. Berlin.

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Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

Why did Kennedy react as he did?-Part 2: Kennedy's reasons- There was no oubt as to the seriousness of the Cubn missile crisis. -Kennedy was under serious pressure from US military leaders to bomb and invade Cuba immediately. This would have almost certainly led to war with the USSR. -Kennedy tried to give himself and Khrushchev a means of solving the crisis without immediate conflict. This is why he chose blockade.-Kennedy also realised that he needed to give Khrushchev a way out without appearing to humiliate the Soviet leader, this sis wy, in private, he agreed not to invade Cuba and latter remove US missiles from Turkey.-Kennedy used the opportunity of Khrushchev's first letter to explore ways to solve the crisis whilst at the same time convincing the Soviets that he was prepared for war.

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Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

The end of the crisis and its consequences- on 28th October,  A.M, Radio Moscow broadcast that the USSR was prepared to remove missiles from Cuba-the crisis was over. Important lessons had been learned by both sides. The Cuban missile crisis was the closest that the USA+USSR came to nuclear conflict throughout the whole of the Cold War. The missile crisis actually helped improve US-Soviet relations as there was a general agreement that future disputes like this had to be avoided. Secondly a telephone hotline was set up between Moscow and Washington D.C so that any problems could be discussed to avoid future crises. Thirdly in 1963, a Test Ban Treaty was signed by USSR, USA+GB. What were the outcomes for USA, USSR and Cuba?- The USA- Kennedy was immediately seen to be the victor in the crisis as he had stood up to the Soviets and they had backed down. Kennedy also successfully stood up to some of his hardline military advisors who wanted to invade. The crisis showed how dangerous their ideas were. BUT. Kennedy agreed in secret not to invade Cuba and more controversially, to remove NATO missiles from Turkey at a later date. Communists remained a threat as Castro remained in power in Cuba. Kennedy was now distrusted by some key generals, who thought he wasnt prepared to fight the spread of communism. Cuban exiles in the USA hated Kennedy as Castro had survive the Bay of Pigs and the missile crisis.

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Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?

The end of the crisis and its consequences- What were the outcomes for USA, USSR and Cuba?- The USSR- Khrushchev had prevented a US invasion of Cuba and had a guarantee that no further attempts would be made. In public, he could claim himself a peace maker by agreeing to remove missiles from Cuba. Khrushchev had US agreement that NATO missiles in Turkey would be removed, however, this was a secret agreement and unknown at the time. BUT. The USSR was shown to have lied to the UN and the world about nuclear missiles in Cuba. US pressure forced Khrushchev to back down and Soviet missiles were removed and many in the USSR felt humiliated. Khrushchev's secret agreement with the USA was unable to be made public. In 1964, Khrushchev was replaced as Soviet leader. Historians consider the outcome of the crisis contributed to his downfall. Cuba- Castro remained in power, and the US agreed not to attempt further invasions. Cuba remained heavily armed, although not nuclear and became a focus for other communists in South America. Castro maintained his control over former US industries. BUT. Cuba remained poor and isolated, unable to trade with the USA,therefore dependant on the USSR for supplies and equipment.

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