FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE
CLIMATE GRAPHS - show the average monthly precipitation and temp. over the course of a year.
LATITUDE - sun is overhead near 0ºC so energy is concentrated over a smaller area, nearer the poles the sun is lower in the sky so energy is spread over a large area.
ALTITUDE - temps decrease with altitude as the air particle cannot transfer heat as they are more spread out.
PREVAILING WIND - wind takes on the characteristics of the surface it blows over.
DISTANCE FROM THE SEA - land heats up much quicker than water so areas in land experience higher summer temps, but water stores heat for longer so coastal areas are warmer during the winter.
MEASURING THE WEATHER
CLIMATE (the average weather conditions of a location)
WEATHER (the current atmospheric conditions):
- Air pressure = barometer
- Humidity = wet and dry bulb thermometer
- Rainfall = rain gauge
- Wind speed = anemometer
- Wind direction = wind vane
- Temperature = max-min thermometer
Equipment is kept inside to ensure results are fair.
- WHITE: to reflect sunlight.
- RAISED: to prevent any influence from the ground.
- LOUVERED: to allow air to circulate.
TYPES OF RAIN
mountains for the air to rise ----> cool ----> condenses ----> forms clouds ----> precipitation.
cold air mass meets a warm air mass, because the warmer the air is less denser it rises over the cooler air ----> cool ----> condenses ----> forms clouds ----> precipitation.
the sun heats up the air near the surface and causes it to rise ----> cool ----> condenses ----> forms clouds ----> precipitation.
TROPICAL RAINFORESTS - Values
DISTRIBUTION = on or near Equator
- Medical Remedies
- Control of Soil Erosion
- Atmosphere Regulation
- Home to Indegenous Tribes
- Cattle Ranching
- Urban Growth
- Road Building
DISTRIBUTION = found near Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
ARID CLIMATES - experiencing less than 250 mm of rain a year because the air is sinking so no condensation takes place.
- Light Colour - to reduce heat absorption
- Humps - to store fat which can be used as water
- Spines - to prevent them being eaten by animals
- Waxy Surface - to reduce water loss through transpiration
- Long Wide Roots - so that they can collect water over a larger area
- Thick Stems - so that water can be stored