WEATHER AND CLIMATE REVISION

FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE

CLIMATE GRAPHS - show the average monthly precipitation and temp. over the course of a year.

LATITUDE - sun is overhead near 0ºC so energy is concentrated over a smaller area, nearer the poles the sun is lower in the sky so energy is spread over a large area.

ALTITUDE - temps decrease with altitude as the air particle cannot transfer heat as they are more spread out.

PREVAILING WIND - wind takes on the characteristics of the surface it blows over.

DISTANCE FROM THE SEA - land heats up much quicker than water so areas in land experience higher summer temps, but water stores heat for longer so coastal areas are warmer during the winter. 

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MEASURING THE WEATHER

CLIMATE (the average weather conditions of a location)

WEATHER (the current atmospheric conditions):

- Air pressure = barometer

- Humidity = wet and dry bulb thermometer

- Rainfall = rain gauge

- Wind speed = anemometer

- Wind direction = wind vane

- Temperature = max-min thermometer

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Stevenson's Screen

Equipment is kept inside to ensure results are fair.

- WHITE: to reflect sunlight.

- RAISED: to prevent any influence from the ground.

- LOUVERED: to allow air to circulate.

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TYPES OF RAIN

RELIEF RAIN:

mountains for the air to rise ----> cool ----> condenses ----> forms clouds ----> precipitation.

FRONTAL RAIN:

cold air mass meets a warm air mass, because the warmer the air is less denser it rises over the cooler air ----> cool ----> condenses ----> forms clouds ----> precipitation.

CONVECTION RAIN:

the sun heats up the air near the surface and causes it to rise ----> cool ----> condenses ----> forms clouds ----> precipitation.

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TROPICAL RAINFORESTS - Values

DISTRIBUTION = on or near Equator

VALUES:

- Biodiversity

- Medical Remedies

- Control of Soil Erosion

- Atmosphere Regulation

- Home to Indegenous Tribes

 

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Deforestation

DEFORESTATION:

- Mining

- Cattle Ranching 

- Urban Growth

- Logging

- Road Building

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HOT DESERTS

DISTRIBUTION = found near Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.

ARID CLIMATES - experiencing less than 250 mm of rain a year because the air is sinking so no condensation takes place.

ADAPTATIONS

Light Colour - to reduce heat absorption

Humps - to store fat which can be used as water

Spines - to prevent them being eaten by animals

Waxy Surface - to reduce water loss through transpiration

Long Wide Roots - so that they can collect water over a larger area

Thick Stems - so that water can be stored

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