WAR AND PEACE

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  • Created by: _Holly98
  • Created on: 20-03-16 12:14

EXAMPLES OF WAR

ENGLISH CIVIL WAR

  • KINSHIP VS DEMOCRACY

WORLD WAR ONE

IRAQ WAR 

  • BUSH & BLAIR CLAIMS REASON BELIEVE SUDDAM HUSSEIN

COLD WAR

  • COMMUNISM VS CAPITALISM
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CAUSES OF WAR

  • RELIGION
  • MONEY
  • TERRORISM
  • GREED FOR LAND / NATURAL RESOURCES
  • DICTAORSHUPS
  • NATIONALISM
  • THREAT NUCLEUR WEAPONS
  • RACISM
  • POVERTY / POOR LIVING CONDITIONS
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CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY - JUST WAR THEORY

A WAR FOUGHT RIGHT REASON RIGHT WAY

ST AUGUSTINE - DEVELOPED AQUINAS - SUMMA THEOLOGICA

  • PROPER AUTHORITY
  • JUST CAUSE
  • ESTABLISH GOOD
  • RESONABLE CHANCE SUCCESS
  • LAST RESORT
  • SUFFICENT FORCE
  • CONTROLLED VIOLENCE
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CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY - JUST WAR THEORY

A WAR FOUGHT RIGHT REASON RIGHT WAY

ST AUGUSTINE - DEVELOPED AQUINAS - SUMMA THEOLOGICA

  • PROPER AUTHORITY
  • JUST CAUSE
  • ESTABLISH GOOD
  • RESONABLE CHANCE SUCCESS
  • LAST RESORT
  • SUFFICENT FORCE
  • CONTROLLED VIOLENCE
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JUS AD BELLUM - JUSTIVE RESORTING WAR - DEONTOLOGI

JUST AUTHORITY

JUST CAUSE

JUST INTENTION

COMPARATIVE JUSTIVE - VALUES SO IMPORTANT? THOSE ATTACKED DESERVE IT?

PROPORTIONALITY - MUST BE IN PROPORTION

LAST RESORT - REASONABLE CHANCE SUCCESS

INTENTION - SYNDERISIS RULE

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PROBLEM: WHAT CONSTITUTES LEGITIMATE LEADER

NON DEMOCRATIC - ARMY LEADER STILL LEADER

CIVIL WARS OR WARS BETWEEN NATIONS

HOW DEFINE WHEN ITS A WAR?

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PROBLEM: WHAT CONSTITUTES A JUST CAUSE

DEFENCE OWN NATION / VULNERABLE NATION / BREECH HUMAN RIGHTS

NOT CASE OIL / TERRITORY

GOING WAR ACHIEVE PEACE ILLOGICAL

TELEOLOGICAL ASPECT - CANT PREDICT OUTCOME

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PROBLEM: WHEN IS THE LAST RESORT THE LAST RESORT

PACIFIST SAY NEVER LAST RESORT

LEAVING WAR LAST RESORT TOO LONG - ENEMY CHANCE PREPARE

PRACTICAL ISSUES - ARGUABLE NOT CONSIDERED IN A MORAL DECISION

CANT KNOW - TELELOGICAL

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JUS IN BELLO - JUSTICE CONDUCT WAR

PROPORTIONATE FORCE

DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN TARGETS (LEGITIMATE AND NON-LEGITIMATE)

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PROBLEM: WHO IS LEGITIMATE / INNOCENT

COMBATANTS - THOSE FIGHTING & CIVILLIANS

CONSCRIPTS - DONT HAVE CHOICE FIGHT

POLITICAL LEADERS

MUNITIONS / WEAPON PRODUCERS

FUNDING FOR WAR - TAX PAYERS & FARMERS

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JUST POST BELLUM - JUSTICE AFTER WAR TELEOLOGICAL

JUS POST BELLUM CONSIDERED IMPORTANT JUSTICE BEFORE AND DURING CONFLICT

PLAYS IMPORTANT PART MODERN JUST WAR THEORY (BEEN IGNORED EARLIER FORMS)

BRIAN OREND REGARDS OUTCOME AS CRUCIAL & ARGUES THEIR MUST BE AN ETHICAL STRATEGY

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JUST CAUSE FOR TERMINATION

REASONABLE VINDICATION OF RIGHTS VIOLATED & AGGRESSOR WILLING NEGOTIATE TERMS OF SURRENDER

TERMS SURRENDER INCLUDE FORMAL APOLOY / COMPENSATIONS / WAR CRIME TRIALS AND REHABILITATION

STATE END WAR COMES CLEAR GOALS CANT BE REACHED WITHOUT USING EXCESS FORCE

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RIGHT INTENTION

STATE MUST ONLY TERMINATE WAR UNDER CONDITIONS AGREED UPON

REVENGE NOT PERMITTED 

VICTOR STATE WILLING APPLY SAME LEVEL INVESTIAGTION WAR CRIMES ARMED FORCES COULD COMMITTED

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PUBLIC DECLERATION & AUTHORITY

TERMS OF PEACE MADE LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY

MUST BE ACCEPTED LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY

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DISCRIMMINATION

VICTOR STATE DIFFERENTIATE POLICTICAL / MILITART LEADERS / COMBATANTS / CIVILLIANS

PUNITIVE MEASURES LIMITED DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE CONFLICT

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PROPORTIONALITY

TERMS SURRENDER PROPORTIONAL RIGHTS INITIALLY VIOLATED

DRACONIAN MEASURES / ANY ATTEMPT DENYING SURRENDERD COUNTRY THE RIGHT PARTICIPATE IN WORLD COMMUNITY ARE NOT PERMITTED

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GROTIUS-BOXING RING ANALOGY

GROTIOUS - ARGUED STATE JUSTIFIED WAR - EVERYONE ON 'RIGHT SIDE' INNOCENT - OTHER SIDE LEGITIAMTE THREAT

NORMALLY PEOPLE RIGHT NOT BE PUNCHED, BOXERS SURRENDERED RIGHT IN THE RING

COMBATANTS SURRENDER RIGHT NOT BE KILLED ENTER WAR ARENA

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THE PRINCIPLE DOUBLE EFFECT

MILITARY TARGET SIGNIFICANT RELATIVLEY CERTAIN DESTROYED / EFFORTS TAKEN DISTINGUISH BETWEEN COMBATANTS AND NON-COMBATANTS REDUCE POSSIBILITY COLLATERAL DAMAGE ARGUED IT IS JUSTIFED

INNOCENT CIVILLIANS DIES AS NO ALTERNATIVE

US & VIETNAM. US SPRAYED NAPLAM - VAPORIZE ALL LIVING THERE PEOPLE HIDING SOLDIERS

CANT APPLY DOUBLE EFFECT NO EFFORT DISTINGUISH COMBATANTS & NON-COMABTANTS

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STRENGTHS OF JUST WAR THEORY

TRIED PROTECT INNOCENT VICTIME WARFARE

ECNOURAGES COMBATS THINK MORAL IMPLICATIONS

REJECTS VIEW NO RULES OF CONDUCT IN WAR SITUATIONS

CULTURE, TRADITIONS & LAWS DEFETED COUNTRY RESPECTED - PREVEN FUTURE CONFLICT

UNIVERSAL THEORY BUT FLEXIBLE AS GROWS WITH TIMES

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WEAKNESS OF JUST WAR THEORY

HARD TELL WHOSE INNOCENT & GUILTY

SOME COUNTRIES CONSCRIPTON - ARE THEY COMBATS?

ARGUED CONCEPT OF WAR & JUSTICE ARE INCOMPATIBLE

WEAPONS MASS DESTRUCTION / TERRORISTS DEMAND DIFFERENT APPROACH - BREAK BASIC RULE

CLASH BETWEEN STATES FAILS SAY WHAT TO DO

OPEN ABUSE - WANT JUSTIFY WAR FOR UNJUST ULTERIOR MOTIVES WILL FIND A WAY

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WALTER WINK

WALTER WINK - DISAGREED AUGUSTINE TEACHING LED CHRISTIANS WRONG PATH - NEVER JUST REASON WAR

JUSTIVE BROUGHT EQUALITY & FAIRNESS - CANT ACHIEVE WAR SO CONTRADICTION TERMS

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PACIFISM

BELIEF VIOLENCE WAR ALWAYS WRONG

INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES PEACFULLY RESOLVED

WORK IMPROVE SOCIETY / REMOVE CAUSE FOR WAR

"I AM A MILITANT PACIFIST WILLING FIGHT PEACE NOTHING END WAR UNLESS PEOPLE REFUSE TO GO" - EINSTEEN

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TYPES OF PACIFISM

RELIGIOUS PACIFISM - QUAKERS FOLOW JESUS PACIFIST EXAMPLE

ETHICAL PACIFISM - NON THEISTS PACIFISTS NON RELIGIOUS REASONS

ABSOLOUTE PACIFISTS - DOESNT ALLOW VIOLENCE ANY SITUATION - ABSOLOUTE PROHIBITION OF VIOLENCE & WAR

CONTINGENT PACIFISM AGAINST DOCTRINAL ABSOLOUTE PROHIBITION. ALLOW SOMETIMES

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CRITICISMS ABSOLOUTE PACIFISM

FAILS ACKNOWLEDGE HUMAN SINFULNESS.

REINHOLD NEIBUR ARGUED CHRISTIAN REALISM - CANT ACHIEVE ETHICAL IDEAS AS SIN IS PRESENT EVERYONE. CHRISTIANS SOMETIMES USE FORCE FIGHT EVIL ESTABLISH JUSTICE

FAILS PROTECT INNOCENT. ASNSCOME ARGUED IMMORAL FAILS PROTECT SUFFER GENOCIDE. DENIES SELF DEFENCE

FAILURE ACT (OMISSION) BLAMEWORTHY AS ACTING. SINGER ARGUE CONSEQUENCE DEFINE GOOD AND BADNESS OF ACT - WE FAIL STOP GENOCICE WE ARE RESONSIBLE

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KEY THINKERS

"EVIL WILL ALWAYS FLOURISH WHEN GOOD MEN DO NOTHING" - BURKE

"NON-VIOLENCE IS THE ESSENCE OF THE GOSPEL" - WNK

"THE LORD IS DISARMING PETER, UNBELTED EVERY SOLDIER" - TERTULLIAN

MCMAHON - PACIFISM DIFFICULT MANTAIN AS TAKES AWAY VICTIMS RIGHT TO DECIDE WHETHER VIOLENCE APPROPRIATE OR NOT

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CHRISTIAN REALISM

CLAIMS CODE ETHICS INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENT THAN THE STATE

ACTION MORALLY WRONG INDIVIDUAL ACCEPTABLE STATE

WRONG INDIVIDUAL IIE BUT OKAY FOR STATE PROTECT ITSELF

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NIEBUHR REINHOLD

PROTESTANT THEOLOGIAN - LUTHERAN MINISTER CLAIMS:

CANT MAKE PERFECT CHOICES - NATURE EVIL - USE FORCE MANTAIN JUST ORDERED SOCIETY

STATE ACT ACCORDING OWN CRITERIA

PRIVATE & PUBLC MORALITY SEPERATE. NATIONAL INTEREST GO TO WAR - ACCEPTABLE - 

PACIFISTS DONT REALISE GOD ACTING THROUGH HUMAN INSTITUTIONS - GOVERNMENT

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NATURAL LAW

PRESERVATION LIFE - WAR DO THIS - INVOLVE COLLATERAL DAMAGE

LIVE SOCIETY - WAR DEFEND ORDER / SOCIETY

NOT TELEOGICAL - ENDS DONT JUSTIFY MEANS

AQUINAS - CONTRIBUTER THEORY

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UTILITARIANISM

RELATIVE

TELELOGICAL

ACT - SITUATION JUDGED OWN MERITS

RULE - MORE PEOPLE HAPPIER WAR LAST RESORT OR WITH PACIFISM

PREFERENCE - FUND MILITARY BETTER USED HUMANITARIAN AID

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BIBLICAL ETHICS

QUAKERS ARGUE JESUS PACIFIST

TEXT SUPPORT OR AGAINST WAR

BLESSED PEACEMAKERS

LOVE NEIGHBOUR

SELL CLOAKS & BUY SWORDS

LORD WARRIOR

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KANT & KILLING

PEACE DUTY - SECURED NATIONS WORK TOGETHER

STATE DEFEND AGAINST ATTACK

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT - PUNISH PROPORTIONATE CRIME - COMMIT MURDER - PUT DEATH

SUICIDE - TREATING MEANS

UNIVERSAL PEACE - REASON DICTATES - WAR GRAVEST INJUSTIVE - AVOID

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