Religious Studies AS (1) Foundations

War and peace, Design Argument, Evil and Suffering

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War and Peace

JUST WAR THEORY

Almost all of the ethical discussions about war focus on one question which is - IS WAR JUSTIFIED?

AUGUJSTINE - Seen by many as the originator of 'JUST WAR THEORY' Augustine had to convince a pacifist religion that it is sometimes necessary to go to war.

THE JUST WAR THEORY INVOLVES:

Jus ad bellum-    Concerns the justice of resorting to war in the first place                               - (before war)

Jus in bello-        Concerns the justice of conduct within the war -                                                  (during war)

Jus post bellum- Concerns the justice of peace agreements and the                                         ending of the war. (ending war)

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Jus ad Bellum

JUS AD BELLUM

Proper Authority - War should be proclaimed by the proper authority.

Just Cause - A nation should have a justifiable reason for declaring war.

Right Intention - The outcome being sought should be noble, generally to bring about peace.

Last Resort - Every effort should have been made to resolve a conflict diplomatically without the use of force.

Proportionality - The damage caused by war should not be greater than the good achieved.

Likelihood of Success - There should be a good chance of success.

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Jus in Bello

JUS IN BELLO

Discrimination - Innocent people should not be targeted e.g. civilians.

Proportionality - The military force should be proportional to the wrong endured and the outcome sought. Minimum force should be used to achieved the desired ends.

NUCLEAR, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

Due to the nature of these weapons it is generally agreed that the Jus in Bello criteria  above cannot be met if nuclear, chemical or biological weapons are used.

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Jus post Bellum

JUS POST BELLUM

The purpose of this aspect of a just war is to restore peace in a controlled manner.

  • Restoring human rights
  • Distinguishing between innocent civilians who are to be free from post war punishment, and those who have gained penalties
  • Public agreement and proclamation
  • Giving war criminals fair trails
  • Establishing financial compensation where necessary
  • Giving the country and its people the opportunity to reform
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