• Created by: brookt13
  • Created on: 29-04-18 11:37

Vitamin A

Vitamin A- Retinol& Beta Carotene (Fat Soluble):

Main sources:Retinol- whole& semi-skimmed milk, cheddar cheese, butter, eggs (yolk), liver, kidney, oily fish, vegetable fat spreads. Beta Carotene-dark leaves of cabbage, spinach, kale, lettuce, peas, orange/ yellow/red vegetables and fruits

Function: To keep the skin healthy, to enable us to see in dim light, helps children grow, and produces mucus for the mucus membranes, and beta carotene is an antioxidant

Deficiency:   Retinol is stored in the liver, and so the stores have to be used in order to have a deficiency. Children don't grow properly. The skin and mucus membranes become dry and infected. Can cause night blindness. It can also cause total blindness and total damage to the eyes. Excess (very rare): Too much vitamin A can be toxic to the body& may damage the development of an unborn baby.   

Why?To grow children need all nutrients in the right amount. Bacteria and viruses can enter the body easily and the body's immune system is weakened. Insufficient visual purple is produced in the retina. The eyes become dry, scarred and infected. Excess vitamin A will build up in the liver and will start to poisin the body. In order to not damage the baby, pregnant women are advised to not take supplements.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D- Cholecalciferol (Fat Soluble):

Food Sources: sunlight, oily fish, meat and meat products, eggs, butter, liver, vegetable fat spreads, fortified breakfast cereals

Function: enables the mineral calcium to be absorbed from the small intestine, helps calcium to be deposited in the bones and teeth  

Deficiency: In children their bones and teeth won't strengthen, and bones in the legs will bend under the weight of the body. Condition is called rickets. Excess (is rare): If too much is taken then, it will lead to damage of the kidneys and other organs.

Why? If there is not enough calcium laid down in the bones, they cannot support the body properly. Calcium will also be removed from the body for other uses (a natural process) and, if not replaced, the bones lose their strength.

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E: Tocopherol (Fat soluble)

Food sources: Soya, corn oil, olive oil, nuts, seeds, wheatgerm, vegetable fat spreads

Function: Vitamin E is an antioxidant

Excess/ Deficiency: A deficiency or excess is rare

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Vitamin K

Vitamin K: Phylloquinone

Food sources: Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, and green tea

Function: It is part of the process that enables the blood to clot when the body is injured, to prevent further loss of blood

Deficiency: It is very rare in the UK, but occurs in new-born babies, ao they are givena dose of vitamin K when they are born.

Why? Babies can sometimes lose blood internally during the birth process

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Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1: Thiamine (Water soluble)

Food sources: Meat, milk, cheese, eggs, vegetables, fresh and dried fruit, wholemeal bread, fortified breakfast cereals

Function: Enables the energy to be released from carbohydrates in the body cells during respiration

Deficiency: Leads to a condition called beri-beri in which nerves and muscles are affected and there are problems with memory, concentration and heart rate

Why? Energy is needed by the nerve cells, which control how the muscles and brain work. A lack of thiamine will result in insufficient energy being released to enable the nerve cells to work properly

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Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2: Riboflavin (Water soluble)

Food sources: Milk and milk products, eggs, fortified breakfast cereals, rice, mushrooms

Function: Enables the energy to be released from carbohydrates, fat and protein in body cells during respiration

Deficiency: rare and it may result in sores at the corner of the mouth because it is needed to help maintain healthy skin

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Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3: Niacin (water soluble)

Food sources: Beef, pork, wheat flour, maize flour, eggs, milk, and it can be made from an amino acid called tryptophan

Function: Enables energy to be released from food during respiration

Deficiency: Results in a deficiency called pellagra, which has three symptoms: diahorrea, dermatitis, and dementia

Why? A lack of niacin prevents the brain and nervous system from working properly

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Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9: Folate (water soluble)

Food sources: green leafy vegetable, yeast extract, peas, chickpeas, asparagus, wholegrain rice, fruits (e.g. oranges and bananas)

Function: Works with vitamin B12 to make healthy red blood cells, and it helps reduce the risk of developing central nervous systems defects, such as spina bifida, in unborn babies.  

Deficiency: Can lead to a type of anaemia called megoblastic anaemia where red blood cells become enlarged. It may lead to defects in the spinal cord in unborn babies.

Why? Without the folate, red blood cells do not develop to the correct size and grow very big. This prevents them from passing through narrow blood vessels. Research is still needed to find out all the causes of spinal cord defects.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12: Cobalamin (fat soluble)

Food sources: Liver, meat, cheese, fish, fortified breakfast cereals, yeast

Function: Works with folate to make healthy red blood cells and it keeps the nerve cells healthy.

Deficiency: Can be stored in the liver for 2 or more years. Vegans have to be careful that they do not become deficient and may take a special B12 supplement to prevent this. A deficiency leads to pernicious anaemia.

Why? Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the small intestine and can only do this if special cells in the stomach produce a particular protein that enables it to be absorbed. If these special cells are damaged or do not work properly, the B12 will not be absorbed.   

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C: Absorbic acid (water soluble)

Food sources: fruit and vegetables, blackcurrants, kiwifruit, guavas, brussel sprouts, cabbage, broccoli, potatoes, milk and liver

Function: Needed to help the body absorb the mineral iron in the small intestine, and in order to maintain connective tissue which binds the body cells together in the skin, blood vessels, muscles, etc. and it is an important antioxidant 

Deficiency: some vitamin C can be stored in the body for a few months & iron is not absorbed, which leads to iron deficiency anaemia, & bleeding from a small blood vessel under the skin and in the gums leads to red spots under the skin and loose teeth. Wounds take a long time to heal and scar tissue may break open. This all leads to the disease called scurvy and can result in death.

Why? Iron is needed to make haemoglobin in the red blood cells, connective tissue starts to break down which allows blood to leak out and weakens the tissue in the gums that holds the teeth in place, and the connective tissue cannot be made properly to heal a wound  and it starts to break down which can open up scars   

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