Unit 3- Key Evaluations (Health and Criminal)

Biological/Learning- Health

SLT/SFP- Criminal

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  • Created by: Issy H
  • Created on: 09-06-12 14:32


- Evidence to Support

-Evidence to Oppose

- Practical Application

- Reductionism

- Research Methods



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The Self Fulfilling Prophecy (Crime)


  • Cannot test ethically, as this may induce behaviour which would not have occured otherwise. 
  • Evidence which exists lies in education and not within crime. 
  • Will only work if expectations are not too different to the induviduals view of themselves. Low Self Concept. 
  • Social Learning Theory may be a more plausible explanation. 


  • Wider effect on society of labelling. 
  • Jahoda- provides evidence with criminal Psychology. 
  • Evidence in education is still valid to support the Self Fullfilling Prophecy. 
  • Correlational Studies show the effect of a self fullfilling prohecy. 
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Social Learning Theory (Crime)


  • Cause and Effect relationships are hard to establish due to many other factors involved in criminal behaviour. 
  • Charlton provides evidence against the role of SLT and the media, as it promoted pro social behaviour, not anit- social behaviour. 
  • It doesn't explain induvidual differences, like why some people are criminals from role models but others are not. 
  • There are issues with Bandura's research as evidence to support the theory. 


  • Practical application of social learning theory in the real world. Changes in role models. 
  • Shows why criminal behaviour may run within families. 
  • Bandura provides evidence, as he found children imitated aggressive behaviour from thier same sex role model. 
  • Williams provides evidence for the fact that TV/media role models influence agressive behaviour. 
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Learning Explanation (Health)


  • Ennet et al. - Shows that SLT is more likely to support not taking drugs, rather than being a negative influence. 
  • Ignores biological factors, so is therefore reductionist.
  • People continue to take drugs despite the naty initial effects, meaning there are other facotrs which contribute. 
  • Issues with cause and effect, we can measure social learning theory effectively. 


  • Wider exploration of behaviour as it used 3 areas (classical, operant, SLT) to explain sustance misuse. 
  • Explains culutral differences. 
  • SLT is well accepted throughout all of psychology. 
  • Explains psychological dependance, with classical conditioning, and context dependancy. 
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Biological Explanation


  • Brain is too complex to study. Research evidence is useless as it doesnt encompass this complexity. 
  • PET scans, which are used to study the explanation lack ecological validity. 
  • We cannot generalise reults from animal studies.
  • It is reductionist as it ignores the influence of the environment. 


  • Explains withdrawl, tolerance, dependance as they are all biological processes. 
  • Evidence from animal studies which show biochemical changes supporting the model. 
  • Correlational studies show there is a change in brain chemicals when drugs are used. 
  • PET scans provide evidence for brain changes. 
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