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Discuss approaches to offender profiling
Offender profiling is a set of empirical data used to compile a picture of the characteristics of those
involved in a crime (Howitt). There is no universal approach to offender profiling as there are
different methods such as crime scene analysis, investigative psychology and geographical…

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murderers and found that the features of `power/control' killings were found in over half the sample
and therefore typical of most murders and not a distinct type.

Another approach investigative psychology (UK offender profiling). This began in the mid 1980's,
when Canter proposed an approach to profiling based on research.…

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lighter sentences than non-attractive defendants. Baron and Byrne suggest that this is due to the
`beautiful is good' stereotype. This is where attractive physical features seem to be associated with
attractive or positive psychological characteristics. Also stereotyping criminals which have physical
unattractive features also has an impact on legal decision…

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discussed for longer which could be another reason why it has such a great influence. Also knowing
most people share their views allows members to sound more forceful and convincing which in turn
may convert other people's views. Tanford and Penrod examined mock juries and found a majority
verdict at…

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During the 1960s a new theory was discovered to why violent crimes were committed. This was the
XYY syndrome that develops when individuals have an extra Y chromosome. It is believed that the
presence of this extra Y chromosome leads to people committing violent crimes. Jacobs et al found

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monkeys; monkeys reared in isolation from their mother suffered emotional and social problems in
older age. The monkeys never formed an attachment and so grew up to be aggressive and had
problems interacting with other monkeys, however this study was conducted using animals so should
not be applied to humans.…

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consequences leading to wrongful convictions. Rattner reviewed 205 cases of wrongful arrest and
found in 52% of cases this wrongful arrest was due to an incorrect eyewitness testimony.

Clifford and Hollin showed how the perceived seriousness of crime can impact on the accuracy of a
witness's testimony. They showed participants…

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Loftus and Palmer examined the effect of leading questions on witness's responses. They found that
a single verb could influence participant's recall of how fast a car was travelling. Participants were
shown a video clip of a car accident. They were then asked a leading question on how fast the…

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cigarettes and passes home were also used. The programme showed a significant increase in the
targeted behaviour compared to the group not involved in the programme. Ayllon and Millan also
conducted research that has shown token reinforcement works with adult prisoners. On the other
hand, Ross and Mackay reported deterioration…

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gradually there is a downward spiral into vandalism and street crime. This would lead to law abiding
citizens to leave the area and crime rates would escalate. This policy suggests that the downward
spiral of criminal behaviour can be avoided by tackling minor crime at the onset to prevent escalation.…




Hi, these are a great help. Do you know what marks they are?



I'm not sure, but I got a B in this module. 

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