Geography- Health

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HIV/AIDS

  • Virus that attacks immune system.
  • Spreads by sexual intercourse, contaminated needles, contaminated blood transfusions and in pregnancy from mother to baby.
  • Pattern 1: 1960s Western Europe- homosexual communities, high risk through drug users and prostitutes.
  • Pattern 2: Sub-saharan Africa- hetrosexuals, spread between men and women or mother to baby.
  • Pattern 3: 1980s Eastern areas/Asia- travelling and contaminated blood transfusions. 

Impacts

  • E- negative impacts on DNP.
  • E- AIDS destroying workforce- reduction of working class, subsistance farmers struggle to feed themselves.
  • H- increasing strain of health services.
  • H- 3 million children HIV+ in Africa, 2.4 million Africans died from HIV/AIDS.
  • H- life expectancy in Bostwana decrease to below 40 years.
  • L- 13 million orphans in Africa.
  • L- rely on young for income- have to sacrifice education, no future or opportunites.
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Managing HIV/AIDS

Treatment:

  • Palliative care.
  • HIV treatment should be free.

Prevention:

  • Family planning, and increase contraceptive use.
  • Provide clean needles and syringes.
  • Avoid unintended pregnancies.

Education and advertising:

  • Effective prevention programs, eg abstaining form sex and being faithful.
  • National AIDS Committee in Thailand- gave 60 million free condoms.
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HIV Case Studies- Botswana & Thailand

Botswana:

  • 24% of adults infected with HIW.
  • Government managing spread of disease by prevention.
  • Life expectancy lower that 40.
  • AIDS destroying workforce, economy effected- by 2021 will be 1/3 smaller.

Thailand:

  • First case in 1980s.
  • Rapid increase in infection rates in vulnerable groups with sex workers and prostitutes.
  • Spread to hetrosexual due to decrease in condom use and increase of premarital and extra-marital male conduct with sex workers.
  • 1999 1 million infected with HIV.
  • Thai government launched '100% condom' program in 1991.
  • Freee condoms given out, meaning more people use them.
  • National AIDS committee set up campaigns via TV, radio and posters.
  • HIV infection rates decrease.
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CHD in the UK

  • Gender- 6.5% in males, 4% in females.
  • Age- 1 in 3 men and 1 in 4 women over 75 have CHD.
  • Ethnicity- Indian, Pakistani, Black Caribbean and Chinese men much lower than general pop.
  • Socio economic- differences between deprivation categories.
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Non-Communicable Disease- CHD

How is it managed?

  • Effective and relatively inexpensive medication available.
  • Effective devices like pacemakers and prosthetic valves.
  • Educate the publime- improve quality of live and decrease amount of deaths.
  • Advising on healthy lifestyles.
  • World Heart Day; medical activities, public do exercise, promote healthy diet.
  • Healthy lifestyle- 5 a day, Jamie Oliver healthy school meals.

Where?

  • Highest death rate from CHD is in India. 60% of CHD is in developing countries.

Impacts:

  • H- symptoms= chest, shoulder, arm and neck pain, shortness of breath.
  • L- lifestyle changes ege exercise, stop smoking. Visit doctors to check blood pressure, sugars and cholesterol levels, restrict freedom.
  • E- patient stops work so no income. Employers have to get new employee, money on business, taxpayer in NHS.
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Cholera in Haiti

Socail Impacts:

  • 2500 Haitians died from cholera. 
  • Cholera is spreading- people have to make precautions eg disease control officers at airports.
  • Cholera needs to be prevented.

Agriculture and Trade:

  • Some of Haiti's rice harvest lost due to contamination.
  • Farmers lose money, people won't want to buy rice from Haiti due to cholera risk, decreasing trade.

Foreign Aid:

  • UK sends aid to Haiti to prevent disease spreading. Going to improve health and water supply for 231,000 people.
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Patterns of Mortality and Morbidity

Morbidity

  • Means illness.
  • Infections diseases(HIV/AIDS) more common in LEDCs, non-communicable diseases(CHD, cancer) more common in MEDCs.
  • DALY- the disability-adjusted life year is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health

Mortality:

  • Means death- high morbidity= high mortality.
  • Mortality rate- how many people die in a population over a period of time.
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Disease of Affluence- Obesity

Causes:

  • Energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
  • Decrease in exercise, energy dense foods high in fat, sugar.

Health consequences:

  • Diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, premature death.

Reducing obesity:

  • Exercise and good diet, less saturated fats.
  • More fruit and veg, limit sugar. Reduce portion size, review marketing practices (eg calories)
  • Compulsory PE, healthy school meals, surgery.

Global distribution:

  • More obesity in MEDCs- fatty foods more available, can afford it.
  • More than 1/3 US adults are obese.
  • Alabama and Mississippi are fatest states.
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Famine- Ethiopia 2000

Causes:

  • Drought, harvests falied.
  • Population doubled.
  • Inhospitable environment- 50+, increasing food costs.
  • Government stops some aid groups. War.

Impacts:

  • Death by hunger. Beri Beri (blind), aneamia, rickets (vit D deficiency)
  • Starvation- 50% people become malnourished (lack of nutrition). 

Short-Term Solutions:

  • Donations to help people affected. Adverts, medical aid.
  • Distrubuting food that is rich in energy, eg oats, porridge, granola bars.

Long-Term Solutions:

  • Education. HPVs (High Yielding Varieties)- make more money. Manage food prices.
  • Helping to develop more productive farming system to prevent future famines.
  • Donating farm animals, eg cows- providing milk and meat.
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Healthcare

USA- Pluralistic

  • Health system provided by thousands of independent doctors and hospitals.
  • Consumer has to pay for treatment, doctor fees, hospitalisation, surgery, equipment, etc.
  • Most people have insurance but 44 million don't.
  • Is a consumer product.

France- Insurance/Social Security:

  • Judged by WHO as most effective in the world.
  • Is an insured guarenteed consumer product. Patient pays but is reimbursed.
  • 3 doctors for every 1000 patients.
  • Expensive system.

Cuba- Socialised:

  • Spends 10 times less than USA, very effective, healthcare is state provided.
  • 2nd highest life expectaancy in Caribbean.
  • Over 30,000 family doctors and 10,000 dentists for 11 million.
  • 21 medical schools with free training.
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Healthcare

Canada- NHS:

  • Aim to provide citizens with equal access to healthcare.
  • Medicare, financed by taxes.
  • Ensures indigenous groups (Inuits) can also get care.

India- Emergent:

  • Healthcare is an item of personal consumption.
  • Private ownership of facilities.
  • Direct payment to physicians.
  • Patient:doctor ratio are 500:1
  • Rural areas lack clinics.
  • Government spending on healthcare is low.

UK- NHS:

  • Paid by taxes.
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Pharmaceutical TNC

1. Research

  • 20 years copyricht.
  • Decide price.
  • Higher percentage of money spent on research of disease of affluence.
  • Prevent rather than cure.

2. Distribution

  • Doctors are advised what to give out- may be given 'freebies' as a bribe.
  • Treat symptoms not a cure to make more money.
  • WHO Essential drug focusses of LEDCs- malaria, diarrhoea.

3. Production

  • Branded drugs are more expensive- paying for the brand and money for advertising.
  • Same drug as WHO list.
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Pharmaceutical TNC

Good:

  • Donate
  • Researching diseases of poverty.
  • Creating WHO Essential drugs.

Bad:

  • Symptoms rather than cure.
  • Money making business rather than healthcare. 

GlaxoSmithKline:

  • 4 billion packs of medicine each year.
  • MEDCs- CHD, LEDCs- polio vaccinations.
  • Huge profits but donates drugs to LEDCs. 750 million drugs donated to cure elephantitis.
  • Helps with community projects.
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Pharmaceutical TNC

Tobacco Companies:

  • 80% of smokers live in poorer countries- 1/3 world pop over 15 smokes.
  • 4 million people die every year from smoking related illness.
  • MEDCs stopping smoking, they recognise it is bad, education, pictures and slogans on cigarettes, smoking ban in England July 2007.

BAT (British American Tobacco) in India:

  • BAT has cigarette factories in 44 countries- 2008 annual revenue was over £30,000 million.
  • Targetted children
  • Selling single sticks- more affordable.
  • Advertising, parties.
  • Target countries that haven't signed the WHO treaty on smoking.
  • In India, increase of smoking related diseases.
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Healthcare in Oxford

Gender:

  • Maternity Ward JR.
  • Gyneacology, family planning.
  • Fitness for both men and women.

Age:

  • 30 care homes in Oxford.
  • Children's Wing JR, opened in 2007, treats most pediatriv illnesses.
  • Neonatal Unit treats babies who need intensive care.

Wealth:

  • Manor Hospital Headington, Bupa Health Insurance, Oxford Private Medical Hospital.
  • Low socio-economic classes more likely to use public hospitals.
  • Good bus links to most hospitals, even public hospitals.
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