Types of Data and Statistical Tests

Definitions of types of data in unit 4 Psychology research methods and the types of statistical tests that go with them.

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Types of Data

Nominal data ------> The level of measurement where scores are placed in categories.

i.e. smokers and non-smokers, pink and not pink etc.

Ordinal data------> The level of measurement where scores are ranked/ordered but no measurements are made.

i.e. Heights- smallest to largest etc.

Interval data-------> The levels of measurement where scores are ranked but the "distance between one score and another is known.

This "distance" is known as an interval.

i.e. Exact height measurements

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Types of Statistical tests

There are 4 statistical tests:

  • Spearman's Rho
  • Chi^2 (Chi square test)
  • Wilcoxon Sign test
  • Mann-Whitney test

Each test goes with a certain type of data and has a criteria which tells us when to use it.

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Data---------> Test

Interval data:

  • Spearman's Rho
  • Mann Whitney test

Ordinal data:

  • Spearman's Rho
  • Wilcoxon Sign test
  • Mann Whitney test

Nomial data:

  • Chi square test
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Chi Square test

Use when:

  • The hypothesis predicts an association between two variables
  • The sets of data are independant
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Spearman's Rho

Use when:

  • The hypothesis predicts a correlation between two variables
  • The two sets of data are pairs of scores from one person/thing
  • The data are ordinal or interval
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Mann Whitney test

Use when:

  • The hypothesis predicts a difference between two sets of data
  • The two sets of data are from seperate groups of participants
  • The data are ordinal or interval
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Wilcoxon Sign test

Use when:

  • The hypothesis predicts a difference between two sets of data
  • The two sets of data are pairs of scores from one person
  • The data are ordinal or interval
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