Learning from others.
- Criminal behaviour is a function of the environment and is impacted on by family and friends.
- Rutherland - you learn criminal behaviour by being in a group where offending is the norm, you confider it acceptable and learn how to commit offences.
--> Bandura - This shows that children imitate criminal behaviour and they will imitate from adults in their environment and therefore commit criminal offences.
- We learn via the social learning theory to commit crimes.
- Johnson - problematic parent leads to problematic children... he looked at NY mothers and found that the ones with problematic children usually had inconsistent rules, used guilt to control them and had difficulty with anger whilst dealing with them
-> Farrington - 411 White working class males, South London from 6 primary schools. 93% interviewed at age 48. 161 had convictions/91% reconvicted/7% chronic offenders. Usually in situations such as having a young mum, a convicted parent, a delinquent sibling and a large family.
- The family influences criminal behaviour
Poverty + Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods.
- Having a low socioeconomic status leads to more crime as the communities usually fail to control their members.
-> Wikstrom - 700 year 7 students from Peterborough, every year from 2004-2007 ; Self reports - Questionnaires for parents/Questions on family life, school, substances and offences/1:1 interviews on environment, environmental data via postal surveys + Psychometric tests..... Neighbourhood disadvantages = more opportunities for crime.
- The exposure to the environment rather than just living there leads to offending. Shows how to predict offending and how to plan interventions.