Farrington - Disruptive Families
Aimed to document offending behavior throughout life and investigate influence of life events on this.
Found 161/411 East London Men at 41, through criminal records and interviews had convictions from 8 years old. 7% chronic and either had: convicted parent/delinquent sibling/young mother/multiple siblings. Concluded that early intervention is necessary to reduce the effect of these factors (at 10 more likely to continue criminal career).
Sutherland - Learning From Others
Theory that assumes deviance occurs when people define situations as appropriate for breaking law in, these definitions linked to previous experience.
Criminal behaviour learnt in communication with others, Mostly in interpersonal groups, it includes techniques. Direction of motives formed from definitions of criminal actions as favorable or unfavorable. Person becomes delinquent as has more definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to it. Differential association may very, Learning criminal behavior same as any other type of learning
Criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values but is not explained by these.
Wikstrom and Tafel: The Peterborough Youth Study
Aimed to find out about offending behavour (peaks during adolescence) and it's relation to individual characteristics and behavioral context.
Cross sectional study using 2000 Peterbourgh year 10 students. 45% male and 30% female committed either (violence, vandalism, shoplifting, theft). 1 in 8 reported.
Adolescent crime either: Propensity induced, Life-style dependent (wouldn't without social group), Situational (wouldn't without other high risk behaviours).