turning points for african americans

period 1865 -1992 with turning points included throughout, both positive and negative

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turning point

1865-77: Reconstruction policies from Radical Republicans in Congress

1866 Freedmen’s Bureau

1866 and 1870 Civil Rights Acts

1868 14th Amendment

1870 15th Amendment

1870-1871 Enforcement Acts

Hiram Revels in Senate


1866 Formation KKK

1860s Black Codes

1873 Slaughterhouse Decision

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Black self-awareness, education, community

1905 Niagara Movement, WEB Du Bois

1909 NAACP

1916 UNIA, Marcus Garvey

1890s Booker T Washington


1890s, Jim Crow Laws

1896, Plessy v Ferguson

1915 Resurgence KKK

1919 Chicago Race Riots

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1920-1941: Roaring Twenties and New Deal

Move to cities: more ghettos



1920s Harlem Renaissance

1930s Roosevelt’s Black Cabinet

1932 New Deal?


1920s Growth KKK

1919-1920 Red Scare

1935, 38 Lynching not made a federal crime

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1941-5: Second World War

1941 Formation of MOWM; A Philip Randolph

1941 Roosevelt forced to create FEPC

1942 Formation of CORE

‘Double V’ campaign

1944 Smith v Allright

1944 Adam Clayton Powell first black Congressman in New York


Segregation in army

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1945-60: Cold War

1946 Truman’s Committee on Civil Rights

1948 Truman desegregated army

1954 Brown v Board of Education, Topeka

1955-6 Montgomery Bus Boycott

1956 Browder v Gayle

1957 Formation of the SCLC: importance of MLK

1957 Eisenhower intervenes at Little Rock

1957, 1960 Civil Rights Acts


Formation of White Citizens Councils

Southern Manifesto

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1960 SNCC and sit-ins

1961 CORE and Freedom Rides

1963 Events in Birmingham

1963 March on Washington

1964 Civil Rights Act

1964-5 Selma Voting Rights Campaign

1964 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

1965 Voting Rights Act

Role of Malcolm X and MLK

Rise of Black Power and Black Panthers


Divisions in the Movement

LA riots and poverty in Northern ghettos


most important turning point

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1968 onwards Rise of New Right

1968 Election of Nixon

1970s Affirmative Action

Black Capitalism

Black government appointments under Carter


Nixon opposed bussing

1973 Right wing Supreme Court supports ruling against bussing

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