Tsarist Russia

  • Created by: DDaniel
  • Created on: 21-03-17 19:00

Tsarist Russia

Opposition to Tsardom 

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Populists:

o        Against capitalism.

o        Worked with the peasants.

o        Young intellectuals from the nobility.

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Social Democrats

(Bolsheviks and Mensheviks)

Bad working conditions and rights.

Lack of trade unions.

Prepare working class for revolution.

Militant shows.

Simple slogans.

Revolution.

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Liberals

Want civil rights and freedom (for the middle classes).

Self-determination.

Voting reform.

Reform rather than violence.

Propaganda.

Major opposition.

Contained middle classes

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Social Revolutionaries

Relied on peasants.

Capitalism and industrialisation.

Agitation.

Terrorism.

Peasants were 77% of the population.

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The peasants

Had to pay redemption payments.

Couldn’t move freely.

Want of land redistribution.

Small uprisings.

Joined political parties.

Politicisation from the likes of the Populists and SRs.

Mass uprising.

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 Causes Of the 1905 Revolution

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Long-Term Discontent

Peasants

o   Poverty.

o   Redemption payments.

o   Suffered famine (1900 and 1902).

o   Population boom was putting pressure on the land.

Proletariat

o   Long hours.

o   Low pay.

o   Terrible working and living conditions.

o   Wanted more political power.

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Government Policy

Tsarist Regime

o   Weak, indecisive.

o   Repressive.

o   Blocks for constitutional reform.

o   No freedom of press or association.

o   No concessions to nationalities.

Witte’s economic policy

o   Tariffs.

o   Indirect taxes.

o   Low wages.

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Government Policy

Tsarist Regime

o   Weak, indecisive.

o   Repressive.

o   Blocks for constitutional reform.

o   No freedom of press or association.

o   No concessions to nationalities.

Witte’s economic policy

o   Tariffs.

o   Indirect taxes.

o   Low wages.

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Catalyst

Russo-Japanese War, February 1904.

o   Defeats on land and at sea shock Russian public.

o   January 1905 – lost Port Arthur.

o   War caused shortages of food and fuel.

o   Showed Tsar’s incompetence.

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Spark

Bloody Sunday, 9th January 1905:

o   Father Gapon with 100,000 took petition for reform to Winter Palace.

o   Tsar’s troops fired on peaceful demonstrators.

Mutiny of the Potemkin, June 1905:

o   Naval uprising on the battleship due to poor conditions.

o   Men refused to eat meat with maggots in.

o   Officers put overboard.

o   Put down by the army.

o   Forced to dock at Odessa.

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Revolution

o   Tsar “was at war with his own people”.

o   Strikes.

o   Peasant uprisings.

o   Riots.

o   October Manifesto 1905.

o   Undermined by Fundamental Laws.

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Revolution

o   Tsar “was at war with his own people”.

o   Strikes.

o   Peasant uprisings.

o   Riots.

o   October Manifesto 1905.

o   Undermined by Fundamental Laws.

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Introduction of Duma 

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The Dumas (1906-1914)

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First duma (april-june 1906 Made up of trudoviks, octobrists, progressives, kadets Made radical demands All adult males should vote Major land reforms should be introduce Political prisoners should be released Ministers should be answerable to the duma
DISSOLVED IN 72 DAYS 

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Second Duma (feb- June 1907) Made up of : number of kadets dropped, seats gained by SR, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. summary Passed important land reform proposed by Stolypin. Existed in a state of constant uproar

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Third duma(nov 1907-june 1912) Electoral system revised à peasants lost votes Deputies were all fairly conservative Octobrists were largest party

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Fourth duma (nov 1912 – feb 1917) Dominated by octobrists and other right wing parties. What the third and fourth Dumas achieved Land captain replaced by Justices of the peace (elected officials) Massive increase in educational provision for students of all ages Political parties legal Debates in the duma were widely reported and discussed by press N2 attitude appeared to have changed towards the Dumas. 

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Fourth duma (nov 1912 – feb 1917) Dominated by octobrists and other right wing parties. What the third and fourth Dumas achieved Land captain replaced by Justices of the peace (elected officials) Massive increase in educational provision for students of all ages Political parties legal Debates in the duma were widely reported and discussed by press N2 attitude appeared to have changed towards the Dumas. 

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Stolypin

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Land reforms 1906 tsar decreed each peasant had an unconditional right to land Stolypin bought in agricultural education to train peasants on more advanced farming techniques to increase yields Sold off vast areas on crown land to Peasant land bank for resale and increase land available

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Emigration to Siberia Certain rural areas = over crowded Encouraged migration to Siberia to try and increase production completion of Trans-Siberian railway Incentives offered to peasants settling in the eastern regions of Russia e.g. Cheap land Around 3 million peasant relocated to Siberia between 1908 and 1913

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Emigration to Siberia Certain rural areas = over crowded Encouraged migration to Siberia to try and increase production completion of Trans-Siberian railway Incentives offered to peasants settling in the eastern regions of Russia e.g. Cheap land Around 3 million peasant relocated to Siberia between 1908 and 1913

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Other reforms Redemption payments finally ended in 1907 Internal passports abolished = more freedom Justices of the peace returned Results On few peasants could afford to separate from the mire and set up their own landholdings Stolypin hadn’t addressed the problem that there was still millions of hectares owned by the tsar and the nobility. Little change in faring techniques

Not much increase faming output

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The February Revolution 1917

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Causes

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Nicholas and Alexandra/rasputin September 1915 N2 appointed himself commander-in-chief of armed force (open to blame) Appointed wife to supervise the government who was accused of passing military secrets to her German relatives Constantly changed minister, causing instability in government. She relied on the advice of Rasputin as she thought he could heal her son hemophilia. The aristocracy and official felt threatened by his importance in court  He was heavily influenced by Alexandra and Rasputin which had disastrous consequences for the Tsar’s reputation over the next three year

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Nicholas and Alexandra/rasputin September 1915 N2 appointed himself commander-in-chief of armed force (open to blame) Appointed wife to supervise the government who was accused of passing military secrets to her German relatives Constantly changed minister, causing instability in government. She relied on the advice of Rasputin as she thought he could heal her son hemophilia. The aristocracy and official felt threatened by his importance in court  He was heavily influenced by Alexandra and Rasputin which had disastrous consequences for the Tsar’s reputation over the next three year

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Economic and social problems Russian towns were over crowded with poor sanitation and water supplies Famines was common and food supplies unreliable Living condition for workers were cramped and unhealthy Work hours were long with little pay Heath and education were poor and created social inequalities 1914 à industrial output was ranked 5th out of the five great powers. 

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Politics Tsar was reluctant to give the duma more responsibility This disappointed many politicians. HOWEVER... By 1914 the duma had become accepted part of national political life, which shows that the old system of autocracy was changing

The duma had a lot of potential to develop into a powerful force

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Events  

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Dual power

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Provisional government Led by Prince Lvov Mainly made up of kadets and other liberals Alexander Kerensky was the of SR in the PG Had no lawful authority as not appointed or elected à not what people wanted Announced it would govern until an elected government occurred First weeks it had popular support and authority was responded in larger cities. However elsewhere people didn’t really care much about them

Local politicians decided that they would rule without interference from the government

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Petrograd soviet Made of elected worker Aimed to look after workers’ interests and protect their right Set up in other town as well At first they were dominated by Mensheviks and SR, but het Bolsheviks became more influential The Petrograd soviet was worried that the army might be use to crush the revolution so it passed Soviet order number 1 which meant soldiers could only obey the PG if it was agreed by the  PS. 

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The PG and the PS agreed on some early reforms Free speech and press Constituent assembly should be democratically elected Abolition of the Okhrana All political prisoners were freed Trade unions were legally recognised

Abolition of the death penalty (except for armed forces)

Although these reforms were impressive, they didn’t tackle huge problems and the country still faced.

Both sides wanted war and the PG wanted to leave the problem of the land reform to the constituent assembly which made it v. Unpopular.

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Opposition to the provisional government 

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Conflicting attitudes towards war

Socialist parties Wanted defensive war Thought army shouldn’t advance against enemy but prevent them advancing into Russia Kadets and liberals Wanted to continue fighting Believed they had obligation towards allies Peace with Germany would mean loss of land and national humiliation Bolsheviks Wanted a defensive war (until Lenin came back) Lenin demanded end to war

Policy became popular between April and October 1917

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April theses

A revolution to seize power from the PG and transfer it to Soviets An immediate end to war The transfer of all land to the peasant

Lenin had two powerful slogan s

All power to the soviets Peace, Bread, Land

Lenin Strengthened support for the Bolsheviks

Before he came back the Bolsheviks competed with other parties for public support Lenin’s radical demands mean they appeared distinct and different They attracted support from people who were against the war and who felt let down by the PG The peasants were attracted to Lenin’s policy of land reforms and switched from SRs to Bolsheviks

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The June offensive 

An attack against Austro-Hungarian and German forces It was Russia’s last great effect in war and was A COMPLETE DISASTER Around 400000 soldiers died 170000 deserted (these figures are probably actually higher) Army began disintegrating Troop mutinied and desertions were widespread Many soldiers were influenced by Bolshevik agitators and had lost the will to fight 

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  The July days strengthen the provisional government

The failure of the June offensive triggered the July days – a period of rioting and violence in Petrograd Unclear whether Lenin ordered it but many Bolshevik leaders felt it was the beginning of a full-blown revolution and they  wanted to take advantage of it Uprising was badly led and disorganised After 3 days the PG used loyal troops to restore order PG ability to crush uprising reinforced its authority and restored some of its control over Russia

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The provisional government in crisis 

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They faced many economic and agricultural problems Economic Inflation was worse and rises in wages didn’t match it – workers began to strike Government could provide enough food and fuel to the towns and cities The peasants refused to sell grain because money was worthless. Daily bread allowance in Petrograd fell between July and November 1917 Fuel shortage forced factories to close. The army then had to deal with inadequate supplies as well as desertions. 

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Agricultural problem Peasants believed that the tsar’s land would be given to them. They were angered by the PG’s decision to ignore the issue Peasant militancy was strengthened by deserting soldiers returning home Violence towards landowners became widespread – many were killed and their land was seized 

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The Kornilov affair weakened the provisional government August Made the PG look weak Bolsheviks STRONG (despite not doing nay thing Leading Bolsheviks released September – Bolshevik gained control of PS Army officers saw Kerensky as a weak leader Showed the Bolsheviks that the government now had little support and could be easily over thrown . support for the Bolshevik grew – they gained majorities in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets Kerensky felt threatened – he shut down the party’s printing presses and arrested leading party member à reason to revolt

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October Revolution 1917

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·     Petrograd government

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Return of Lenin and Bolsheviks (peace, bread and land)

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·         Kornilov affair

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Lenin then brought about the revolution

Convinced the Bolshevik central committee to begin an immediate armed uprising Wanted to seize power in the name of the soviets when the all- Russian congress of soviet met in October PG announced elections for Constituent assembly would be held in November Lenin feared the SRs would gain most seat Leon Trotsky led the soviets’ military revolutionary committee 24th oct – Trotsky ordered the red guard to seize key positions with Petrograd. They took railway stations and the post and telegraph offices 25th oct – Kerensky fled to try and organise a counter-attack using loyal troops. His attempt at resistance failed and he left the country. The Bolsheviks stormed the winter place where the government was meeting and arrested the minister without a fight 26th oct- Lenin announced to the all-Russian congress of soviets that the PG had been overthrown and that power was transferred to the congress. The congress handed power over to  a council of people’s commissars, chaired by Lenin.

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The Bolsheviks take control (1917-1918) 

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Bolshevik take control

So Lenin tried to shut down the constituent assembly

He had NO faith in democracy and so got rid of anything that got in his way During the election campaign Lenin spoke against the constituent assembly. He argued hat the existence of the all-Russian congress of soviets meant that the assembly was unnecessary Lenin also claimed there was widespread corruption during the election but he had no proof The assembly met in Petrograd on 5th jan 1918 and the delegate held a long and heated debate. At 5am on 6th jan the tired guards said ‘LEAVE’ When they returned Lenin went ‘YOU SHALL NOT PASS’ and the guards showed them their guns and told them to ‘PUSH OFF’ This was an early sign that the Bolsheviks weren’t willing to share power.

The next task was to end the war

First act of the Bolshevik government was to issue the decree on peace which called for an immediate end to the war

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treaty of Brest-litovsk

Russia lost Vast areas of land 1/3 of its agricultural land ½ of its heavy industry and nearly 90% of its coal mines 

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created the Cheka (cough secret police) to keep order

Far more efficient than the Okhrana. Its main aims were to maintain state security and endure the continuation of Bolshevik rule

Soon established itself outside of the law. It had the power to arrest, prosecute, imprison and execute any real or suspected enemies of the government 

It was hated for two reasons

They set up concentration camps where people were forced to work as slave labour They formed grain requisition squads to seize grain from the peasant. 

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Why the Bolsheviks won the civil war

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White weaknesses Geographical position Armies were separated from one another by huge distances. They often were unable to coordinate attacks against the Bolsheviks They controlled large rural areas, but were unable to gain support of the peasant who feared the white would bring back their former landlords. Disunity The leaders of the whites never worked together to develop strategy They didn’t have a common cause except ridding Russia of Bolsheviks 

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Red advantages Geographical position The Bolsheviks only controlled about 15% of the territory of the old Russian empire But this area was densely populated, had a good railway network and it included major industrial centres The red army wasn’t spread out. This made it harder for the white to find weaknesses Leon Trotsky He created the red army almost single-handedly Imposed ruthless discipline on his troops His leadership was inspiring and he raised morale of soldier when he visited the frontline in his armoured train. 

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Western allies intervened Russia’s western allies in the first world war feared the spread of communism in Europe after the war They were also angry that the Bolsheviks had no intention of paying back Russia’s war debts Britain, France, Japan and the US all sent small numbers of troops to Russia. They hoped this would put pressure on the Bolsheviks during the civil war Foreign intervention was a failure. There was a lack of enthusiasm among the allies for the conflict after the end of WW1. Allied forces never made a coordinated attempt to defeat the red army. The troops were withdrawn in 1919 and 1920. 

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Bolshevik economic policies (1917-1924) 

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