Token Economy Programme Description
- The TEP is based on learning theories, specifiaclly operant conditioning principles.
- It assumes that criminal behaviour has been learnt and therefore can be unlearnt.
- Desired behaviour such as obedience, doing chores and not fighting can be rewarded with tokens (secondary reinforcers). These can be exchanged for primary reinforcers such as leisure time, sweets, cigarettes etc.
- This will increase desired behaviour and t/f there will be a relative reduction in undesirable and inappropriate behaviour.
- Before starting TEP it is important to configurate how tokens can be established and how many are needed for each reward and how behaviour will be gradually shaped.
- Hobbs & Holt monitored the success of TEP using 125 deliquent males in Alabama Boys Industrial school. Boys were given tokens for following rules and the tokens were allocated were recorded on a behaviour chart and printed paper token was given to each boy each day. Boys could exchange tokens in the TEP shop.
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Token Economy Programme Evaluation
- It is an economical way to improve behaviour; the tokens are cheap and the system does not require any specialised staff. Tokens can be exchanged for free primary reinforcers such as more leisure time for a prisoner. Therefore the programme is a practical and sustainable treatment method. HOWEVER
- There could be other reinforcements in a prison setting. For example higher status or respect could be gained in prison for undersired behaviour. T/F this contradicts with the TEP and can reduce the likelihood of desired behaviour.
- There is supporting research: Hobbs and Holt 1976 found that all participants had an increase in positive behaviour over the 14 months the data was collected. The greatest improvement was found in cottage B which went from 46.7% to 80.8% of desired behaviours. T/F its a valuale and useful method of treatment to make prisoners more manageable in a prison setting.
- Research evidence suggests that its not effective, e.g Rice et al (1990) found that behaviour modifications do not transfer to outside the institution. T/F this is not useful because it is proven to not reduce recidivism.
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Anger Management Programme Description
- Based on cognitive behavioural therapy which encorporates behaviour and cognitive ideas. Criminal behaviour is due to anger which is caused by faulty thinking. T/F if we change our thinking, behaviour change will follow.
- It can be done in one t one sessions or as a group, it is conducted by a trained professional who visits the prison.
- Initially you need to find the trigger
- Criminals reflect on their actions to identify how they could respond differently. Criminals are also taught relaxation techniques such as counting to ten or withdrawal from the situation to use when they are triggered.
- They are encouraged to practice responses and techniques through role play.
- They are also encouraged to keep a diary to document anger and bring it with them to sessions to record responses and triggers.
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Anger Management Programme Evaluation
- Evidence investigating the effectiveness of AMP use self report data. This is good because whether somebody feels angry is a subjective judgement; it is best if the criminal themselves reports on their emotions because the results then become more valid. However...Such data could be biased. e.g due to demand characteristics or social desirability bias, e.g a prisoner could be wanting to get off the programme and would not report any anger. T/F data could be unreliable.
- Anger diaries can help to measure the success of the programme. Could do qualitative analysis of the diary entries or convert a quantitative meaure (e.g do a content analysis & record the frequency of references to anger). T/F provides evidence of whether the programme is an effective programme to treat offenders.
- The programme may have long term effects. AMP equips criminals with tools to help them reduce their anger beyond prison - e.g recognise when angry and the triggers. Along with how to respond better to these signals. T/F it is more useful than the TEP, which is just beneficial within an insitution where tokens can be given and can lead to a reduction in recidivism.
- Cannot treat all offenders. It will only succesfully work if anger is the main cause of the crime e.g assault. Not good for other crimes where anger is not required e.g Fraud.
Evidence that anger is not the cause of all crimes e.g Loza-Fanous found no difference in anger levels between violent & non- violent offenders, rapists & non- rapists. T/F this is not a holistic therapy or a useful one because it cannot be used in all circumstances.
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